heart attack

Topics: Carbohydrate, Glucose, Polysaccharide / Pages: 17 (1299 words) / Published: Nov 2nd, 2014
Carbohydrates & Glycobiology

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby
B.Sc., D.Phil
Assistant Professor
Email: moghrabyj@ksau-hs.edu.sa
Lecture 13 & 14




Describe the structure of carbohydrates
 Classify the types of carbohydrates
 Recognise different types of glycoconjugates and their role

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby



Most abundant organic molecule in nature
 Empirical formula (CH2O)n
 Originally produced from CO2 and H2O during photosynthesis  Sugars and polymers of sugars; range of size

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Extensive roles of carbohydrates:

Energy source
Energy storage
Structural components
Cellular recognition

Found linked to proteins and lipids; key roles in mediation interactions

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Carbohydrate Structure


Simplest carbohydrate
Classified after the number of carbon atoms


Glyceraldyhyde, dihydroxyacetone Pentoses

Ribose, ribulose


Glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Termed according to location of oxidized functional group; aldose if aldehyde, and ketose if ketone
Ketose named after the equivalent aldose; with addition of ‘ul’

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Monosaccharides are Chiral

Stereoisomers around asymmetric carbon
Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other; D- and L-isomers
Most carbohydrates are in the D-form

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Monosaccharides with multiple asymmetric carbons can also exist as diastereoisomers; not mirror images of each other
Number of possible steroisomers = 2n (n = number of chiral C)
Diasteroisomers have different physical properties
D- and L-configuration based on asymmetric carbon furthest from aldehyde or ketone group

One less chiral centre than aldoses

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

D-Aldoses containing 3-6 Carbon

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