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Topics: Carbohydrate, Glucose, Polysaccharide / Pages: 17 (1299 words) / Published: Nov 2nd, 2014
Carbohydrates & Glycobiology

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby
B.Sc., D.Phil
Assistant Professor
Email: moghrabyj@ksau-hs.edu.sa
Lecture 13 & 14

BIOC211

2013

Objectives


Describe the structure of carbohydrates
 Classify the types of carbohydrates
 Recognise different types of glycoconjugates and their role

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Introduction

Carbohydrates


Most abundant organic molecule in nature
 Empirical formula (CH2O)n
 Originally produced from CO2 and H2O during photosynthesis  Sugars and polymers of sugars; range of size

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby



Extensive roles of carbohydrates:







Energy source
Energy storage
Structural components
Cellular recognition

Found linked to proteins and lipids; key roles in mediation interactions

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Carbohydrate Structure

Monosaccharide



Simplest carbohydrate
Classified after the number of carbon atoms

Common
Monosaccharides
Trioses

Glyceraldyhyde, dihydroxyacetone Pentoses

Ribose, ribulose

Hexoses

Glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose Dr. Jeelan Moghraby




Termed according to location of oxidized functional group; aldose if aldehyde, and ketose if ketone
Ketose named after the equivalent aldose; with addition of ‘ul’

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

Monosaccharides are Chiral




Stereoisomers around asymmetric carbon
Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other; D- and L-isomers
Most carbohydrates are in the D-form

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby






Monosaccharides with multiple asymmetric carbons can also exist as diastereoisomers; not mirror images of each other
Number of possible steroisomers = 2n (n = number of chiral C)
Diasteroisomers have different physical properties
D- and L-configuration based on asymmetric carbon furthest from aldehyde or ketone group

One less chiral centre than aldoses

Dr. Jeelan Moghraby

D-Aldoses containing 3-6 Carbon

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