Health Care Delivery Systems
Health Care Delivery Systems
Healthcare delivery systems refer to the organization of resources, institutions, and people intended to provide healthcare services to particular populations. Health systems vary substantially across the world. In fact, the organizational structures and history is unique in each country. Some states have distributed health system planning amongst market stakeholders. On the contrary, other countries have concentrated energy among religious organizations, governments, trade unions and other united institutions to provide organized health care services customized to target populations. The objective of this essay is comparing similarities and differences between various international health care systems across the globe. One of the major health care delivery programs in the United States includes group health insurance plans. The health system emerged during World War II. The employers began offering employee benefits in the form of affordable healthcare services to attract the limited labor supply. Since then, many healthcare reforms implemented in the United States from the 1970s has enhanced this philosophy (Yih, 2010). Currently, US has over 1200 insurance companies that give group health insurance programs. The objective of group insurance plans is providing employees with affordable, high quality and efficient healthcare services (Cooper & Taylor, 1994). The Medicare program is another healthcare delivery system intended for retirees above sixty-five years. The service differs from group health insurance plan in that the beneficiaries are unemployed, and the government pays for the individuals’ treatment cost. For younger and poorer American citizens below sixty-five years, the government has established Medicaid healthcare delivery system to offer free medical services. Eligible candidates for the Medicaid program include poor individuals that cannot afford the service and non-beneficiaries of subsidized healthcare systems such as the group insurance (Cooper & Taylor, 1994). In addition to these methods, the US has a variety of other healthcare systems intended for the uninsured. The programs include the Veterans Administration, military and Native Americans among others. These programs are extremely complex since they have varied the reimbursement, underwriting, benefit and eligibility (McCarthy & Schafermeyer, 2007). Canada uses a healthcare delivery program called “Single payer system.” The intention of establishing the system is ensuring healthcare equality among all the citizens. The coverage of the plan is universal and comprehensive. The provincial governments provide funds for the compulsory medical care using tax money (McCarthy & Schafermeyer, 2007). However, the federal government contributes and controls some of the money the provincial administrations contribute to the citizens’ healthcare plans. Patients are independent to choose their preferred healthcare provider. Majority of the physicians in Canada have private practices that they charge a fee based on services they provide. Many hospitals are not-for-profit institutions that are managed by trustee boards. The modern healthcare delivery system in Canada began in Saskatchewan in the 1950s and then spread to the entire nation by 1966 (Baribault & Cloyd, 1999). Japan provides medical services to every citizen using employer-financed insurance plan. The aim of using employer-based program is controlling the cost of healthcare expenses. The result of the plan is a substantially healthy nation at one of the most affordable healthcare cost in the world (Yih, 2010). The country has a variety of insurance programs that are funded using various obligatory deductions, patient co-payments, and taxes. Patients have the liberty of choosing their preferred healthcare providers (McCarthy & Schafermeyer, 2007). On the other hand,...
References: Cooper E. & Taylor L. (1994). Comparing Health Care Systems: What makes sense for the US? Context Institute. Web, retrieved on January 18, 2015 from http://www.context.org/iclib/ic39/cooptalr/
Baribault, M. & Cloyd, C. (1999). Health Care Systems: Three International Comparisons. Ethics of Development in Global Environment.
McCarthy, R. L., & Schafermeyer, K. W. (2007). Introduction to health care delivery: A primer for pharmacists. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Yih, Y. (2010). Handbook of Healthcare Delivery Systems. CRC Press.
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