NAME: CHINAZOR NWOKOCHA
STD. ID: 3330731
WORD COUNT: 4077
The Ottawa Charter which was being approved by some researchers, makers of policies and practitioners came together in Canada to make a way for the countries in the WHO EURO region to pursue the Declaration of Alma Ata’s vision of “Health for All by the Year 2000” (WHO, 2011). 3 papers were cited as reminder for the Charter: the Lalonde report (1974), the Alma Ata Declaration and the optimistic meaning of health in preambles of WHO constitution (1946). The WHO constitution suggested an optimistic definition of health for the very first time as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (1946). However, it has been difficult to interpret this meaning of health into the society (Parrish, 2010), it still remains the most likeable and incorporative meaning of health. It creates the positive aspect of health (Kickbusch, 2007) other than the preventive adverse condition. It works as a summary to both the Alma Ata declaration and the Ottawa Charta and begins the statements that health is right of humans and the key elements that form health are societal (Mann, 1996). 2011 made it 25th year’s anniversary of Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, 1986). Sometimes, it is presented as a document that promotes health (Hills & McQueen, 2007), but can be “tip of a much more complicated set of ideas and values” (Saan, 2007). Ottawa charter’s role was independently for public health to integrate health promotion widely. In the western world where it was developed, health promotion was known as the third revolution (Fassin, 2000), and a critical dialogue for public health. In recent times, health promotion has gone wide, not just for an individual alone but also for the community as a whole. This is supported by the Bangkok Charter which made the field of health promotion to be a global awareness by ensuring that there are commitment to be made by health professionals if they want they vision of health promotion in a community to be achieved (WHO, 2005). Therefore, the main worries of public health are to prevent diseases instead of the medicinal aspect of the disease. It deals at the population level other than at the individual levels. The conditions in which people live have a profound influence on their health. Difference in health between individuals and population groups exist in all societies. For example younger age population generally have good health compared to elder population. This kind of health difference cannot be concluded as health inequality because it is natural. So the question is that when the difference in health becomes inequality? According to Graham the difference in health between population groups becomes inequality when it is linked to the inequalities in their position in society (2007). World Health Organisation appointed Committee for the Social Determinates of Health (CSDH) also hold similar view as not all health inequalities are unjust or inequitable. If good health were simply unattainable, this would be unfortunate but not unjust. Where inequalities in health are avoidable, yet are not avoided, they are inequitable (2008). So the differences in health between groups having unequal position in society become an ethical issue. The aims of promoting health are to optimistically enhance the behaviours of individual and the society on their health including those environmental and social factors that could affect their health negatively. Usually, the environment where a person lives is very vital for both the status of his health and quality of Life. It was recognized gradually that maintenance and improvement of health is not only via the progress and application of health science, but via healthy lifestyle choices made by an individual and the society as a whole. Although, the determinants of health according to WHO (2002) which could be economic and...
References: Arah, O. A. (2009). On the relationship between individual and population health. Med Health Care Philos.; 12(3): 235–244. Online: 2http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2698967/. December, 2014.
Bartley, M. (2004). Commentary: Relating social structure and health. International Journal of Epidemiology; 32:958–960
Bergsma, L (2004) Empowerment education
Blane, D., Smith, G. D., and Bartley, M. (1998). Social class differences in years of potential life lost: size, trends, and principal causes. BMJ. 1; 301(6749):429-32.
Case, A., Fertig, A. and Paxson, C. (2005). The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. Journal of Health Economics 24: 365–389.
Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008). A Conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Online: http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/csdh_framework_action_05_07.pdf. January, 2015
Dahlgren, G. and Whitehead, M. (2007). European strategies for tackling social inequities in health: Levelling up Part 2. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (Studies on social and economic determinants of population health, No. 3).
Davey Smith, D., Dorling, R., and Mitchell, M. S (2002) Health inequalities in Britain: continuing increases up to the end of the 20th century. J Epidemiol Community Health: 56:434–435
Department of Health (2003) Tackling health inequalities
Department of Health (2004) Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier. Public Health White Paper. London: DH.
Erben, R., Franzkowiak, P. & Wenzel, E. (2000) People empowerment vs. social capital: From health promotion to social marketing. Health Promotion Journal of Australia: l.9, 3
Fassin, D (2000)
Fraun, B. (2008). Planning and Evaluation of Community-based health promotion, (edn.). Oxford: The New Public Health, Oxford University press: 203-04.
Graham, H. (2004) Social determinants and their unequal distribution Milbank; 82(1):101-24.
Hills, M. & McQueen, D. V. (2007). At issue: Two decades of the Ottawa Charter. Promotion & Education; 14 (suppl 2):5.
Kawachi, D. K., Coutts, A. S., Subramanian, V. (2004). Commentary: reconciling the three accounts of social capital. Int. J. Epidemiol, 33: 682–690
Kuh, D. and Ben-Shlomo, Y. (2004). A Life Course Approach to Chronic Diseases Epidemiology. USA: Oxford Medical Publications; Oxford University Press, USA.
Lalonde, M. (1974). A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians. A Working Document. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada. Available at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/pubs/1974-lalonde/lalonde-eng.pdf. November, 2011.
Laverack, G & Labonte, R (2000) A planning framework for community empowerment goals within health promotion. Health Policy and Planning Vol.15, 3
Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet, 365: 1099-104.
Marmot, M. (2010) Fair Society, Healthy Lives: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post 2010. Available online: www.marmotreview.org. November, 2014.
Navarro V. Shi L. (2001). The Political context of Social Inequalities and Health International. Journal of Health Services: 3: 1-21.
Nordenfelt, L. (2007). The concepts of health and illness revisited. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10: 5–10.
Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health Literacy as a Public Health Goal: A Challenge for Contemporary Health Education and Communication Strategies into the 21st Century. Health Promotion International: 15(3), 259–267.
Parrish, R. G. (2010). Measuring population health outcomes. Prev Chron Dis; 7(4):A71.
RCN, (2002). The community Approach to improving public health: community development for community nurses. Online: www. rcn.org.uk/data/assets/pdf file/0005/7851/001445.pdf. December, 2014.
Saan, H. (2007). Ottawa 1986 revisited. Promotion & Education; 14 (2):11.
Shaw, M. (2004). Housing and public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 25: 397–418
Solar, O., Irwin, A
Tajer, D. (2003). Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges. Am J Public Health; 93(12):1989-91.
Wanless, D. (2004). Securing Good Health for the Population, final report.
WHO (2002). Gender glossary. Appendix to Integrating gender perspectives in the work of WHO. WHO gender policy. Geneva.
WHO, (2003). The Solid Facts: Social Determinants of Health.
WHO (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion: The move towards a new public health. An international conference on health promotion, Ottawa, Canada.
Wilkinson, R. G. & Marmot, M. (2003). (Eds). Social determinants of health: the solid facts. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Wilkinson, R. G., and Pickett, K. E. (2006). Income inequality and population health: a review and explanation of the evidence. Soc Sci Med.; 62(7):1768-84.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document