Health Promotion in Nursing Care
Family-Centered Health Promotion
October 12, 2014
Health Promotion in Nursing Care
Health Promotion is the social science and art of helping individuals discover the interaction between their optimal health and core passions, increasing their ambition to strive for optimal health, and encouraging them in changing their lifestyle to move toward a state of ideal health. Lifestyle change is made possible through educational experiences that create awareness, increases motivation, and builds opportunities (Edelman, Mandle, & Kudzma, 2014, p. 11). The World Health Organization (WHO), defines health promotion as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions” ("WHO," 2013). The purpose of health promotion in nursing practice is to educate, provide positive influences and assist patients to maintain or improve their quality of life by preventing illness. Health promotion is of vital importance because it is aimed towards prevention, improving the quality of life and generalized health of families and individuals. Primary, secondary, and tertiary are the three levels of health promotion. Primary promotion is based on prevention and is used to prevent the onset of diseases by reducing the risks. This is accomplished by reducing exposure to a particular disease or altering behaviors such as encouraging smoking cessation. In the article entitled,” Primary and secondary tobacco prevention in youth”, the author explains that childhood is a precarious time for children to experiment with tobacco. The nursing profession has made a major impact on primary prevention of tobacco use by providing education in schools, communities, families, and acute patient settings. However there is still much more education which needs to occur. Nurses should rise to the critical task of continuing to provide comprehensive education on primary tobacco prevention for our youth (Tingen, Andrews, & Stevenson, 2009). Secondary prevention aims at the early detection and treatment of a disease. Regular screening for disease is the key, monitoring blood pressure, routine blood glucose checks for individuals over the age of forty and mammography screening to name a few. “Secondary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack”, an article written in 2011, aims at identifying and changing risk factors associated with subsequent strokes. Secondary prevention focuses on a multimodal approach, combining medical interventions with support on lifestyle behavior changes. Nurses have a critical role in educating patients about the risk factors for stroke such as: the use of tobacco, improper diet, alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. In addition to education nurses provide support for patients in making the appropriate lifestyle changes (Lawrence, Fraser, Woods, & McCall, 2011). Tertiary prevention works towards reducing the impact of the disease, enhancing patient’s quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living. It can include modifying risk factors such as assisting an asthmatic patient in reducing their exposure to allergens, or encouraging a cardiac patient to obtain a healthy weight. Tertiary prevention’s main goal is rehabilitation and accommodation of an irreversible condition to enhance the quality of life. According to the author A. Mosayebi, in the article: The Effects of Cardiac Tertiary Prevention Program after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery on Health and Quality of Life, there are physical impairments and restrictions to activity which effect patients shortly after bypass surgery. These restrictions create obstacles to health in relation to quality of life. Tertiary prevention focuses on restoring function and reducing complications related to the disease process. Patients who attended the cardiac tertiary prevention program which included exercise training and psychological counseling had an improvement in general health five years after their bypass surgery compared to those who did not attend (Mosayebi et al., 2011). The role of nurses in health promotion includes consultation, clinical practice, follow up, patient education and prevention. This role has led to an increase in patient adherence, improved quality of life, and increased patient knowledge. The nurses’ strategies in health promotion encompass health education, patient empowerment collaboration with communities and individuals, implementation and the evaluation of health needs. Health promotion whether it is primary, secondary, or tertiary puts a demand on patients to make behavior changes to have an impact on disease prevention and reduction in associated deaths. References
American Thoracic Society. (2009, 05/01/2009). Asthma Therapies Revisited: What Have We Learned. . http://dx.doi.org/eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu Edelman, C., Mandle, C., & Kudzma, E. (2014). Health Promotion throughout the Life Span (8 ed.). Health Promotion. (2013). Retrieved from www.int/topics/health_promotion/en/ Lawrence, M., Fraser, H., Woods, C., & McCall, J. (2011, 11/02/2011). Secondary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack. Nursing Standard, 26, 41-46. Retrieved from eds.a.ebschost.com.library.gcu.edu Mosayebi, A., Javanmard, S., Mirmohamadsadeghi, M., Rajabi, R., Mostafavi, S., & Mansourian, M. (2011, 07/21/2011). The Effects of Cardiac Tertiary Prevention Program after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery on Health and Quality of Life. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2(4), 269-274. Retrieved from eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu Tingen, M., Andrews, J., & Stevenson, A. (2009, 02192010). Primary and secondary tobacco prevention in youth. Annual Review of Nursing Research, (27), 171-193.