Education To Girls Between The Age Of 13-17 On Body Image And Healthful Nutrition University of Central Florida
NUR 3634 Community Health Nursing
Body image among girls between 13 to 17 years of age who are not comfortable with their appearance continues to increase; related to poor diet and nutrition; as evidenced by "third of teens (34.4%) in Santa Barbara County, California were overweight or obese in 2009" (Santa Barbara County Public Health Department, 2011). Healthy People 2020 Objective NWS-10.3 states, "Reduce the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 19 year who are considered obese. The baseline data is 17.9 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years were considered obese in 2005-2008" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Why this Diagnosis is a Health Problem
As our youth girls go through puberty, they become aware of peer acceptance and approval. Body image can be of great concern during this transition as more focus is placed upon physical appearance. When an adolescent has a negative perspective on body image, it can lead to low self-esteem, poor eating habits, dieting, depression, anxiety, and eating disorders (National Association of Social Workers, 2013). The negative effects can lead to a decrease in grades and an increase in teasing and/or bullying. Being overweight can increase the risks of coronary heart disease, Type 2 Diabetes, cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon), hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, liver and gallbladder disease, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, gynecological problems (Weichselbaum and Buttriss, 2011). Research has also shown that United States adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight tend to perform poorer academically compared to those who do not see themselves as overweight (Florin, Shults, & Stettler, 2011).
Current Nursing Interventions
Santa Barbara County Public Health Department has established a Healthy Weight Promotion & Obesity Prevention Plan. There are seven types of interventions that are currently available which include: "Prevention Education (kids, parents, and youth serving professionals), School Interventions (food services, PE, and health education), Physical Activity Opportunities (after-school sports, youth centers, and active technology), Community Planning (walkability, parks, safety, transportation, restaurant and market permits), Food Service Policies (menu labeling, banning unhealthy ingredients and proportions), Media Outreach (public service announcements), Medical Treatment (medical and behavioral interventions)" (Santa Barbara County Public Health Department, 2011). One physical activity promotion strategy discussed is for medical providers to "monitor patient weight, and prescribe and support regular physical activity with exercise regimens, referrals, and follow-up" (Santa Barbara County Public Health Department, 2011). If the adolescent becomes teased or bullied because of their body image and suicide becomes an issue, there are many hotlines that an adolescent can utilize. The National Hopeline Network (1-800-SUICIDE), National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK), and the Santa Barbara County Family Service Agency (1-800-400-1572) are just a few hotlines that the adolescent could use (Melody Clark, 2012). To help tackle negative effects of body image, adolescents need information on consuming fruits and vegetables, physical activity, decreasing the amount of high fat/sugar foods and drinks, and reducing television/electronic time. Successful Interventions
One intervention that has shown to be effective is parental involvement. "Parental involvement leads to more favorable results in obesity prevention, as the family is thought to be key to developing a psychosocial environment that is conducive to healthy eating and physical activity" (Stice, Shaw, & Marti, 2006, p. 669). According to Stice et al. (2006), TV viewing and video game...
References: Florin, T. A., Shults, J., & Stettler, N. (2011). Perception of Overweight Is Associated With Poor Academic Performance in US Adolescents. Journal Of School Health, 81(11), 663-670. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00642.x
Melody Clark. (2012). California Suicide and Crisis Hotlines. Retrieved from http://suicidehotlines.com/california.html
National Association of Social Workers. (2013). Adolescent Girls and Body Image. Retrieved from http://www.naswdc.org/practice/adolescent_health/ah0204.asp
Pretlow, R. A. (2011). Addiction to Highly Pleasurable Food as a Cause of the Childhood Obesity Epidemic: A Qualitative Internet Study. Eating Disorders, 19(4), 295-307. doi:10.1080/10640266.2011.584803
Santa Barbara County Public Health Department. (2011). Healthy Weight Promotion & Obesity Prevention Plan. Retrieved from http://www.countyofsb.org/phd/healthed.aspx?id=39606
Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2010). Foundations Of Nursing In The Community: Community- Oriented Practices. (3rd ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.
Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Marti, C. (2006). A meta-analytic review of obesity prevention programs for children and adolescents: The skinny on interventions that work. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 667-691. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.667
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Healthy People 2020: Nutrition and Weight Status. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/ topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=29
Weichselbaum, E. E., & Buttriss, J. J. (2011). Nutrition, health and schoolchildren. Nutrition Bulletin, 36(3), 295-355. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01910.x
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