Health Policy Determinant Timelines

Topics: Health care, Health economics, Psychiatry Pages: 7 (1040 words) Published: August 10, 2015


Health Policy Determinants Timeline
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Health Policy Determinant Timelines
Mental health affects us all. How we think and feel about our lives and ourselves has an impact on our behavior and how we cope in tough times. Mental health illness include conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, anxiety, bi-polar disorder, bulimia, depression, hyperactivity, insomnia, mania, narcolepsy, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic attacks, paranoia, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, stress, suicide and Tourette's. The timeline of mental health policy in the United States is a representation of the ways in which trends in psychiatry and cultural understanding of mental illness influence national policy and attitudes towards mental health. The United States is considered to have a relatively progressive mental health care system and the history of its evolution. 5th century B.C

“Many cultures have viewed mental health illness as a form of religious punishment or demonic possession. In ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings, mental illness was categorized as a religious or personal problem” (Knapp & etc. 2011). Hippocrates was a pioneer in treating mentally ill people with techniques not rooted in religion or superstition; instead, he focused on changing a mentally ill patient’s environment or occupation, or administering certain substances as medications. 1800s

In the 1840s, activist Dorothea Dix lobbied for better living conditions for the mentally ill after witnessing the dangerous and unhealthy conditions in which many patients lived. Over a 40-year period, Dix successfully persuaded the U.S. government to fund the building of 32 state psychiatric hospitals. This institutional inpatient care model, in which many patients lived in hospitals and were treated by professional staff, was considered the most effective way to care for the mentally ill. Families and communities struggling to care for mentally ill relatives also welcomed institutionalization. Although institutionalized care increased patient access to mental health services, the state hospitals were often underfunded and understaffed, and the institutional care system drew harsh criticism following a number of high-profile reports of poor living conditions and human rights violations. Early 1990s

Mental Health America (MHA), originally founded by Clifford Beers in 1909 as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, works to improve the lives of the mentally ill in the United States through research and lobbying efforts. A number of governmental initiatives have also helped improve the U.S. mental healthcare system. 1946

Harry Truman passed the National Mental Health Act on July of 1946, which created the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH). Allocated government funds towards research into the causes of and treatments for mental illness. By the mid-1950s, a push for deinstitutionalization and outpatient treatment began in many countries, facilitated by the development of a variety of antipsychotic drugs. Deinstitutionalization efforts have reflected a largely international movement to reform the “asylum-based” mental health care system and move toward community-oriented care, based on the belief that psychiatric patients would have a higher quality of life if treated in their communities rather than in large, undifferentiated, and isolated mental hospitals. 1963

In October of 1963 Congress passed the Community Mental Health Act (CMHA) or fully known as Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Health Centers Construction Act, which provided federal funding for the development of community-based mental health services. Many patients, formerly warehoused in institutions, were released into the community. However, not all communities had the facilities or expertise to deal with them. In many cases,...
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