Health Care Issues in the United States
Health Care Issues in the United States
Explain how health is affected by behaviors, economics and social questions?
As we see in the world today, people’s health are affected by several things such as behavior, economics and social issues. Health or unhealthy living, are caused by certain behaviors which may be considered risky. Let’s take a look at what some people may consider risky behavior; driving reckless, using illicit drugs and or abusing alcohol. These types of behaviors are on the high end. On a less dramatic level, there are some behaviors such as tobacco use unbalanced nutrition along with a lack of physical activities will affect your health. It is known that when you have poor behaviors in any of the above mentioned health areas, can cause or lead to major health diseases which will ultimately lead to death.
When looking at the health concerns among people in the United States and other countries in the world today, there are two other areas which have a profound effect on our health. The areas are economic situations and social issues. Our societal and economic statuses have become critical regarding health concerns and problems. For instance, some individuals and most third world countries with little or no income have very poor health. This is mainly due the ability to obtain or maintain health insurance because of the low income or lack of. Other social and economic issues such as lack of social acceptance, racial discrimination and bad working conditions are very likely to lead to illnesses. One or more of these mentioned social or economic issues could ultimately lead to an early demise. From an everyday approach, it is not the availability or non-availability of medical aid which is the major issue, but how the social and economic factors are related to the health of individuals and most third world countries. It can be said that “social inequity is health inequity” (India-Services, 2006).
Describe the three stages of medical technology development.
In the field of medical technology in the U.S. today as well as moving forward through the year 2010, medical technologies may enhance and provide a more efficient way to deliver care. As stated by the White House’s budget director and chief economist Peter Orszag, “ medical electronic devices and instruments provide the beat potential to encourage more efficient ways to deliver health care” (Dimartino, 2010).
Looking at the current U.S. outlook regarding health care, recent global economics challenges will continue to be the driving force in the field of medical electronics. As seen in the table below, three areas are addressed; trends, technology and the impact it will have through 2010.
|TRENDS |TECHNOLOGY |IMPACT |
|2010 |Apply existing technologies and bio-sensors |Specialized devices |
|Next generation |Optimize proven technologies and bio-sensors |High-value, low-risk products |
|Long term |Advanced real-time devices with wireless |More efficient delivery of home care through |
| |communication |monitoring and diagnosis |
Three stages of product growth are going from the current focus of specialized devices to the next-generation low-risk innovations and then to the highly advanced interactive, real-time devices and instruments. With a huge emphasis on the development of specialized portable medical electronic devices, will accelerate as companies address patient needs with the new innovation. According to the company Microchip, recent applications includes; implantable devices (cardiac rhythm management, medical stimulation and drug delivery). In accordance with Peter Orszag, Chief Economist, these newly formed technology developments will take us through 2010 and beyond (Dimartino, 2010).
Describe the major trends in population demographics over the past 80 years.
Reviewing the population demographics over the past 80 years, we must look at the fertility trends over this time period. In regards to health care, fertility is a key determinant of the population pyramid, as well as the use of services for mothers, infants, and children. Fertility often has an influence on all age groups (Torrens & Williams, 2008).
Presently, the total fertility rate is below the replacement level in practically all industrialized countries. In the less developed countries, the fertility decline started later and proceeded faster than in the more developed regions. Today, we can see the fertility rates move toward a much lower level and the mortality declines, especially at the older ages. This reassures us that there is an increasingly important role in the area of population ageing.
Describe the most important trends in mortality over the past century.
On a global level, one of the trends in the population has to do with the life expectancy of today. Life expectancy at birth is currently 66.5 years. Over the next four decades, life expectancy is projected to increase by 9 years, to reach 75 years by 2045-2050 (Department of Economic & Social Affairs, 2007).
The way of computing life expectancy is done at the age of birth and 65 years of age. This usually happens through the mechanics of the death certificate, where info from the death certificate is compiled by the state and federal governments. One of the trends in mortality over the past century has to do with the mortality rate in regards to “cancer”. Between the years of 1970 and 2000, there were several important statistics given regarding cancer mortality and who were affected the most. In 2000, the highest cancer mortality in males was observed in Argentina and Chile, with rates which are comparable to those of Canada and the USA. For women, Chile and Cuba had the highest rates in Latin America, again comparable to those of North America. For men, cancer of the stomach, lungs and intestines are the leading cancerous areas. For women, the most identified cancer areas where the stomach and uterus (Annals of Oncology, 2005).
Annals of Oncology Advanced Access (2005). Trends in cancer mortality in the Americas, 1970 - 2000. Europeans Society for Medical Oncology.
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2007). Major Developments and Trends in Popula- tion Ageing. Prepared by: United Nations, Population Division.
Dimartino, A., 2010. Three Stages Await Medical Electronics Development. Electronic Design.