THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Sanitation is the science and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions. “Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces.” (WHO, 2008). Proper sanitation greatly helps in achieving optimal health of individual. It is very important to dispose excreta safely. Personal hygiene and hand washing is greatly encourage after defecating, before and after eating and before cooking to minimize or lessen bacteria. Fecal contamination will not only affect the human health at the same time it will also destroy or threaten the environmental health. Proper sanitation is the easiest and cheapest way of preventing water-borne diseases. Sanitation is a global concern. There are more than 20 million Filipinos suffering the indignities and health hazards of not having access to proper sanitation. (EcoSan, Philippines 2010). 1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases (including cholera), 90% of all deaths caused by diarrheal diseases are children under 5, mostly in developing countries. 88% of all diarrheal deaths are attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene.In 2004, only 59% of the world population had access to any type of improved sanitation facility. In other words, 4 out of 10 people around the world have no access to improved sanitation. They are obliged to defecate in the open or use unsanitary facilities, with a serious risk of exposure to sanitation-related diseases.(International Year of Sanitation (IYS), 2008) “The Philippines has made fairly significant inroads in increasing access to basic sanitation”. However in spite of these gains, sanitation problems and challenges continue to pervade the country: open defecation in pockets of low-income urban and rural communities; lack of appropriate sanitation facilities; improper hygiene behaviors; and low levels of coverage of urban wastewater...
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