Health Campaigns to Use to Explain Models of Behaviour Change
In this report it will investigate at least three recent health education campaigns and use them to explain two models of behaviour change. The three recent health education campaigns will be ‘Smoke Free’, ‘Change4Life’ and ‘FRANK’. The two models of behaviour change will be the theory of reasoned action and the stages of change model.
For a health educator to carry out their role effectively, they should understand the complicated processes which may influence an individual to change their behaviour.
The theory of reasoned action
This theory gives an outline that looks at the attitudes which strengthen behaviours. It suggests that the most significant cause of an individual’s behaviour is behaviour intent. Behaviour intent is the person’s intention to carry out a behaviour and this depends on their attitude and the subjective norm. The subjective norm is the influences of individuals in somebody’s social environment on their intention to perform the specific behaviour. If an individual believes that the outcome of taking on a behaviour will be positive, they will have a positive attitude towards the particular behaviour. If other individuals who are important to that person also believe that this behaviour change is positive, then a positive subjective norm is formed. By having a combination of both the individual believing the outcome of adopting the behaviour will be positive and other individuals believing that the behaviour change is positive, it will be much more likely that the person will follow the health advice.
The stages of change model
The stages of change model says that the process of behaviour change can be broken down into five stages. The five stages are pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. Pre-contemplation is when there is no intention to change behaviour in the near future. At this stage individuals are not aware at all or not aware enough of their problems. Contemplation is when individuals are aware that a problem is there and are seriously considering overcoming their problem but they have not yet made commitment to do something about it. At the stage of preparation individuals are intending to do something about it very soon, however have not done anything about it recently. At the stage of action individuals make changes to their behaviour, experiences or environment so that they can overcome their problems. This needs a lot of commitment of time and energy. Maintenance is the stage when individuals work to try and stop relapse and establish what they have gained during action. The model is often shown as a wheel and some individuals may have to go through the process many times to be successful in departing the cycle and attaining a steady and maintained changed behaviour. The following picture shows the wheel of the stages of behaviour change:
The following hyperlink is to an online version of the Smoke Free health education campaign: http://smokefree.nhs.uk/advice-and-information/behind-the-campaign/
The Smoke Free health education campaign uses the theory of reasoned action model of behaviour change. The campaign aims to encourage individuals who smoke to quit smoking. If an individual who smokes views the Smoke Free campaign they may realise that if they quit smoking it will have a positive effect on their health and prevent causing serious harm. If they do believe that the outcome of following the health advice provided by the Smoke Free campaign will be positive, for example it will reduce their risk of developing illness, disability or death caused by cancer, heart or lung disease, it will reduce their risk of gangrene or amputation caused by circulatory problems, it will improve fertility levels and it will improve their breathing and fitness etc. They will therefore have a positive attitude towards the behaviour of stopping smoking. Other people...
References: Stretch B and Whitehouse M, 2010, BTEC National Level 3 Health and Social Care Book 2, Pearson Education Limited.
Smoke Free ‘The science behind the campaign’ http://smokefree.nhs.uk/advice-and-information/behind-the-campaign/ (accessed 11/03/2013)
Change4Life ‘Healthy food & activity tips for you & your kids’ http://www.nhs.uk/Change4Life/Pages/change-for-life.aspx (accessed 11/03/2013)
Talk to Frank ‘FRANK’ http://www.talktofrank.com/ (accessed 11/03/2013)
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