Critique of Health Believe Model
Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum.
King Saud University.
Explanation of Theory:
The Health Belief Model is a value expectancy theory, which states that
An individual’s behavior can be
predicted based upon certain issues that an individual may consider (i.e. perceived susceptibility, perceived severity) when making a decision about a particular behavior concerning their health.
The Health Belief Model is an archetypal pattern used to evaluate or influence an individual’s behavioral changes in regard to a particular health condition. The model suggests that the likelihood that an individual will take action
concerning a health condition is determined by the person’s desire to take action and by the perceived benefits of the action weighed against the perceived costs of barriers. The model also evaluates how an individual estimates their susceptibility to a condition and the benefits of detection and treatment for that particular illness.
What is the purpose of this study?
Developed in response to a significant lack of participation in programs designed to prevent and detect diseases (1950s) *
Later extended to include the study of people’s behaviors to the symptoms and diagnoses of a disease *
HBM postulates why some people will take action for disease prevention, screening, and maintenance while others will not
What are the concepts of this theory?
Here are six major concepts in HBM
1. Perceived Susceptibility
2. Perceived severity
3. Perceived benefits
4. Perceived costs
6. Enabling or modifying factors
How are the concepts defined?
Perceived susceptibility. The subjective perception of the risk the individual is at from a state or condition.
• Perceived severity. Subjective evaluation of the seriousness of the consequences associated with the state or condition.
• Perceived threat, the product of severity and susceptibility. This combined quantum might be seen as indicative of the level of motivation an individual has to act to avoid a particular outcome.
• Perceived benefits. The subjectively understood positive benefits of taking a health action to offset a perceived threat. This perception will be influenced not only by specific proximal factors, but an individual’s overall ‘health motivation’.
• Perceived barriers. The perceived negatively valued aspects of taking the action, or overcoming anticipated barriers to taking it.
• Self-efficacy. This component has been added to the HBM on many occasions since the late 1970s, when Bandura first introduced this concept of act or task specific self confidence, i.e. belief in one’s ability to execute a given behavior.
What is the nature of the relationship?
The health belief model proposes that a person's health-related behavior depends on the person's perception.
What is the structure of the theory?
Hockbaum produced conceptual models and theories in attempt to answer the questions. Systematic analyses using the full range of components that it today incorporates might cast light on the impact of social and other factors associated with inequalities in health, and the reasons why individuals and groups may not take up health improvement or protection opportunities.
On what assumptions does the theory build?
We believe that the Health Belief Model is a humanistic theory. Our belief is
based on each of the theory’s met theoretical assumptions. Here is a brief list of our findings... Epistemology: This theory is comprised of multiple truths because it applies to different situations and individuals in various ways. The knowledge gained is interpretive in nature.
Ontology: This theory relies heavily on free will because each individual determines the actions involved. This is an active theory.
Axiology: This theory is value-laden because...
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