In this assignment I will look at three major theorists and discuss their theoretical approaches and how the model of their methods can be in health and social care settings. Define different three major theorists and theoretical approaches. In health and social care setting, there are different theoretical approaches that are used as counselling intervention. These help us to understand the mentality and process of human behaviour. These theoretical approaches are psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioural and humanistic approaches. Each of these approaches is based on certain assumptions and beliefs that focuses on defining of human nature and experience. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic is the model of pioneers Sigmund Freud, his theoretical approach is about, understanding human behaviour and factors that motivate behaviour looking at id, ego and superego which are the three parts of the human psychological structure. Freud identifies id like a child, which often is impulsive and has to feed on the basic needs as it’s pacify. The ego is our conscious self of what is portrayed out for others. Freud suggests that the superego is our subconscious and acts as mediator of the id’s basic desire to make the ego that is socially acceptable and healthy. This psychoanalytic therapy looks into one’s subconscious drive and to what drives the problem presenting themselves through the ego of the conscious self. Subconscious processes are the roots of all forms of neurotic symptoms and behaviours. Which are neurotic anxiety and moral anxiety. Freud suggests that our superego has the capability of surpassing memories as a protective mechanism to our ego. Psychoanalytic is then used in the way to uncover what hidden subconscious in one’s memory using counselling and therapeutic process of free association, dream analysis, analysis of par proxies, resistance, regression using hypnosis and transference and these are all used to study the unconscious mind. Such therapy must be attempted in a controlled environment and where the therapist and their client has established a good working relationship. Psychodynamic is implemented as long term therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
This model of therapy was pioneered by Aaron Beck as a cognitive theory of depression, which looked at negative thoughts that may reflect underlying dysfunctional beliefs and assumption. Albert Ellis contributed in a major way to the works of Beck by his development of humanism, philosophy and behavioural therapy as a major cognitive behavioural approach when he formed rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). (Corey et al 2009 p274). The theory is founded on the belief that there exists a relationship between cognitive emotions and behaviours. This relationship affects how the individual experiences events and situation. Cognitive theories observe human nature from a cognitive and behavioural perspective, believing that individuals have the capability to think rational or irrational thoughts and can identify the problem. As it is believed that maladaptive thinking is often a habit and clients are usually only semi-aware of its existence (Trower et al 1988 p4). Although we may there are several approaches to the cognitive behavioural therapy which are based on concepts and principles from psychological models of human emotion and behaviour. These approaches help the client to understand their thoughts and feelings that influence behaviour and correcting distorted and maladaptive thinking among the cognitive behaviour, somatic emotional systems. The therapy is used to treat a range of disorders like phobias, addiction, depression and anxiety. Not only does it merely assume that human is a product of their sociocultural conditioning, but it focuses on current view that the individual as the producer and the product of their environment. The principles and methods are to be in short-term approach. There are many techniques that can be...
References: Corey, G. 2008. Theory and practice of group counseling. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Egan, G. 2010. The skilled helper. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks Cole, Cengage Learning.
focusing.org. 1996. Research in psychotherapy with schizophrenic patients and nature of that illness Journal of psychotherapy. [Online] Available at: http://httpwww.focusing .org 2097 [Accessed: 30 Dec 2013].
Freud, S. 2009. Chapter3 the psychodynamic approach. [Online] Available at: http://httpwww.freudfile.orgpsychoanalysisfree_associations.html [Accessed: 31 Dec 2013].
McGuire, J. 2012. cognitive behavioral approaches- an introduction to theory and practice. [Online] Available at: http://httpwww.justice.gov.uk [Accessed: 31 Dec 2013].
McLeod, J. 2009. An introduction to counselling and psychotherapy. 4th ed. Buckingham: Open University press.
Nelson-Jones, R. 2013. The theory and practice of counselling psychology. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Ltd.
Sanders, P. 2004. The tribes of the person-centered nation. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
www.cehd.umnceed. 2011. Positive Reinforcement a proactive intervention for classroom. [Online] Available at: http://http/www.ched.umn.educeedpublications ipsheetsposrein pdf [Accessed: 30 Dec 2013].
Please join StudyMode to read the full document