Activity 2.2.2: Nutritional Terms Chart
Cassie Walker, 1st Period
The portion of food used as a reference on the nutrition label of that food.
The standardized serving size is one tool you can use to be sure you're following a healthy, balanced diet. Calories
A unit of heat used to indicate the amount of energy that foods will produce in the human body You need to balance calories because in caloric excess, you consume more calories than you use and can lead to weight gain. In contrast, a caloric deficit means you are burning more calories than you consume, causing you to lose body mass Total Fat
This number on a food label indicates how much fat is in a single serving of a food. Keeping track of your total fat intake is the only way to know you’re getting the amount your body needs to make hormones, insulate organs and fill many more diverse roles. Unsaturated Fat
A fat derived from plant and some animal sources, especially fish, that is liquid at room temperature. Intake of foods containing more unsaturated fats than saturated fats may contribute to reduced blood cholesterol levels. Fats are important for your body because they insulate your nerve cells, balance your hormones, protect you from cold, keep the skin and arteries supple and also lubricate your joints Saturated fat
any animal or vegetable fat, abundant in fatty meats, dairy products, coconut oil, and palm oil, tending to raise cholesterol levels in the blood.
Saturated fats are needed for energy, hormone production, cellular membranes and for organ padding. Also, certain saturated fatty acids are also needed for important signaling and stabilization processes in the body.
An unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils, most margarines, commercial baked foods, and many fried foods. An excess of these fats in the diet is thought to raise the cholesterol level in the bloodstream. You need to be careful what you eat because trans fats can cause serious health problems such as heart disease and even cancer. Cholesterol
A steroid alcohol C27H45OH that is present in animal cells and body fluids, regulates membrane fluidity, and functions as a precursor molecule in various metabolic pathways and as a constituent of LDL may cause atherosclerosis Cholesterol is a vital molecule, without which all of us would die. Sodium
A soft, light, extremely malleable silver-white metallic element that reacts explosively with water, is naturally abundant in combined forms, especially in common salt, and is used in the production of a wide variety of industrially important compounds. Sodium is important for fluid distribution, blood pressure, cellular work and electrical activity. Carbohydrates
any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body. Carbohydrates are important for maximum energy, speed, stamina, concentration, recovery and better fluid balance. They are vital for athletes and active individuals because they are the primary fuel for your body. Fiber
dietary material containing substances such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin, which are resistant to the action of digestive enzymes. Fiber prevents or relieves constipation. It can also lower your chance of diabetes and heart disease. Sugar
a sweet crystalline substance obtained from various plants, esp. sugar cane and sugar beet, consisting essentially of sucrose, and used as a sweetener in food and drink. Your body uses all types of sugar as its main energy source. Protein
A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen. Other components include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus. The body needs protein to repair and maintain itself.
A silvery-white, moderately hard metallic element of the alkaline-earth group that occurs in limestone and gypsum. It is a basic component of leaves, bones, teeth, and shells, and is essential for the normal growth and development of most animals and plants.
Iron is a mineral found in every cell of the body. Iron is considered an essential mineral because it is needed to make part of blood cells.
Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young and to keep bones strong as you get older.
Iron is a part of that blood-oxygen delivery system, and without proper levels of iron, you may begin to feel the weakening effects of low iron: tired all of the time, pale, listless and irritable.
a group of nutritionally unsaturated hydrocarbons.
An essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The body requires vitamin C to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin.
Vitamin A is commonly known as the vitamin needed for good eyesight. Along with promoting vision, vitamin A is also vital for regulating genes, maintaining healthy skin, supporting the immune system and producing red blood cells.
Vitamin C aids in staving off all kinds of diseases, improving the immune system, preventing inflammation, and generally supplying the body with chemicals that help it to process a diverse diet.
* Foods contain other important minerals and vitamins. The most common vitamins and minerals displayed on food labels have been included for this activity.