Hazards to food safety

Topics: Bacteria, Foodborne illness, Microbiology Pages: 13 (3110 words) Published: October 4, 2013
College of Hospitality Management

Lesson 2: HAZARDS TO Food Safety
General Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

- Headache- Abdominal Pain
- Nausea- Diarrhea
- Vomiting- Fatigue
- Dehydration- Fever

When a living, disease-causing microorganism is eaten along with a food, it can cause a foodborne infection. After ingestion, the organism burrows into the lining of the victim’s digestive tract and begins to grow in number. This can lead to the common symptoms of FBI like diarrhea. A common type of foodborne infection is salmonellosis. The disease is caused by Salmonella bacteria that are frequently found in poultry and eggs.

1. Infection
Caused by eating food that contains living disease causing microorganism. Ex. Bacteria, virus, parasites / grows inside the body and stomach FBI: Salmonella bacteria that are frequently found in poultry and eggs. 2. Intoxication

Caused by eating foods that contains harmful chemical or toxin produced chemical waste or toxin. If the food containing the toxin is eaten, the toxin causes an illness. Ex. Food Poisoning, common examples of food intoxication are Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus. Intoxication may also occur when an e person consumes food that contains man-made chemicals such as cleaning agents or pesticides. 3. Toxin-mediated infection

Caused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms that will produce a toxin once inside the human body. (as in the case of an infection) A toxin-mediated infection is different from intoxication because the toxin is produced inside the body. An example of an organism that causes this type of illness is Clostridium Perfingens. On set time

Is the number of hours between the time a person eats contaminated food and when they first show symptoms of the disease. Individual onsets vary depending on factors such as age, health status, body weight and the amount of contaminant ingested with the food.

Refers to a biological, chemical or physical hazard that can cause illness or injury when consumed along with the food.

Biological Hazards
Include bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. These organisms are very small and can only be seen with the aid of a microscope. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that require food, moisture and warmth to multiply. Chemical Hazards

Are toxic substances that may occur naturally or may be added during the processing of food. Ex. Include agricultural chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics), cleaning compounds, heavy metals (lead mercury), food additives, and food allergens.

Chemicals and other non-food items should never be placed near food items. Physical Hazards
Are hard or soft foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury. They include items such as fragments of glass, metal, unfrilled toothpicks, jewelry, adhesive bandages and human hair. These hazards result from accidental contamination and poor handling practices at many points.

Are one of the most important biological foodborne hazards for any food establishment. Bacteria are reported in more cases of FBI than any hazards. All bacteria exist in a vegetative state. Vegetative cells grow, reproduce, and produce waste just like other living organism. Some bacteria have the ability to form spore. Spores help bacteria survive when their environment is too hot, cold, dry, acidic or when there is not enough food. Spores are not able to grow or reproduce. CLASSIFICATIONS OF BACTERIA

Spoilage Bacteria
Degrade (break down) foods so that they look, taste and smell bad. They reduce the quality of food to unacceptable levels. Pathogenic Bacteria
Are disease-causing microorganisms that can make people ill if they or their toxins are consumed with food.

Bacterial Growth - the reproduction of bacteria and an increase in the number of organisms. Binary Fusion – a process which...
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