Hate Crimes Against Gays and Lesbians
CJ490: Research Methods in Criminal Justice
Prof: Deborah Barrett
August 7, 2012
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons frequently face violence motivated by their sexuality or gender identity. Violence may be executed by the state, as in laws prescribing corporal punishment for homosexual acts, or by individuals engaging in intimidation, mobbing, assault, or lynching. Violence targeted at people because of their perceived sexuality can be psychological or physical and can extend to murder. These actions may be motivated by homophobia or trans-phobia, and may be influenced by cultural, religious, or political mores and biases thus, making my problem statement: People that misunderstand homosexuality commit hate crimes. Making my variables: People that misunderstand homosexuality as my independent and my dependent being: Commits hate crimes. These variables can be operationalized by only the nominal measurement. The reason for this use is because there are too many different categories of homosexuality. There are men who like men, women who like women, men who dress as women to attract other manly looking men, women who are attracted to women who dress and carry themselves like men, and for this confusion alone there is no possible way to measure what group of homosexuals that are targeted the most and what group is targeted the least. With no real way to narrow down the targets of LGBT crimes my hypothesis is: Majority of the people that do not agree or understand homosexuality has shown some form of discrimaitory acts towards gays and lesbians which have led to committing hate crimes.
The Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic
Jacobs and Henry attempt to deconstruct the claim that the US is experiencing a hate crime epidemic by drawing from the "social construction of reality" perspective. The article...
Cited: Cannon, K. D., Linhorst, D., & Ann, P. (2006). How will they understand if we don 't teach them? the status of criminal justice education on gay and lesbian issues. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 17(2), 18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lib.kaplan.edu/docview/223394528/138532D4950947D8F97/7?accountid=34544
Dundar, E. (2006). Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: Identity politics or identity risk?. Violence and Victims, 21(3), 15. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lib.kaplan.edu/docview/208525731/abstract/13853553FFA414B3AE7/6?accountid=34544
Jacobs, J. B., & Henry, J. S. (1996). The social construction of a hate crime epidemic. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 86(2), 26. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lib.kaplan.edu/docview/218396007/13853553FFA414B3AE7/1?accountid=34544
Winer, A. S. (1994). Hate Crimes, Homosexuals, and the Constitution. Harvard Civil Right-Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), 29, 53. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=17580384
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