HANDOUTS # 2
The government: It’s forms,
structures AND PRINCIPLES
PREPARED BY: PORTIA ELAINE V. BISMONTE
There are several forms and kinds of government. They are further divided into by number of authority eg: by one, by many, and by all. There are also governments classified according to institutions, As to Source of Power, and etc. And some governments combine one or more of these classifications to make a state.
IA. Forms and Structures of the Government
I. By Who Exercises the Power
A. By One Person
1. Monarchy – a form of government where the ruler is a monarch who comes from a blue-blood family, has a royal title: king/queen, emperor/empress. Tsar/tsarina (Czar/Czarina), Ceasar, Pope, etc. It is the exercise of sovereign power in one or ruler. Ex: King Louise the XIV of France, or Catherine the Great Czarina of Russia. Many used the Divine Right Theory to rule over and have complete control over the state. a. Classification according to source of power:
Absolute Monarchy – Also known as Despotic, or even Arbitrary form of monarchy (these are the negative names for Absolute Monarchies that abused their powers). A monarchical government in which all the powers of the government is in one hand, and He/she as monarch is the embodiment of the state and his will is law, the state and government is identical, which makes him above the powers of the law. The monarch exercises absolute powers of the state, which means he/she controls the three branches of the government. He/she is lawmaker, law executor and judge all in one man/woman. Ex: Sultanate of Brunei Constitutional Monarchy – Also known as Limited or Enlightened Monarchy. In which the monarch is willing to part with his powers and delegate them to government agencies, the monarch is not above the law for he/she is still under the power of the fundamental power of the land the Constitution. The power of the monarchy is limited or restricted by the Constitution or by prescribed written principles. And monarch usually only practices being the Head of State which is sometimes just a ceremonial and unitary position. Ex: England’s Queen Mother Semi-Constitutional Monarchy – is where both the elements of Absolute and Constitutional Monarchies are practiced in a balanced way, wherein the monarch may be elected but has absolute power to control and manage the state but is still checked by laws and the constitution. Ex: Julius Caesar or Rome b. According to Succession:
Hereditary Monarchy- in which the position of Monarch is inherited through blood or marriage. Ex: Egypt’s Pharaoh Elective Monarchy- in which the position of Monarch is elected by the people for him/her to assume the position, the power of the monarch comes from the people so the people also has the power to delimit the powers of the monarch. Ex: Malaysia’s King 2. Dictatorship/Autocracy/Totalitarian – a government wherein the leader is from the common mass/middle class, in which the leader gets tremendous powers from the people who vested these powers to the leader in times of emergency and wars, and controls all aspects of both government and state. There are several definitions as accorded by history and these are: During the Roman Empire: Roman dictators were allocated absolute power during times of emergency. Their power was originally neither arbitrary nor unaccountable, being subject to law and requiring retrospective justification. Dictatorship refers to an autocratic form of absolute rule by leadership unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. Example: Totalitarian States during WWII: Nazi Germany, Mussolini’s Italy. The USSR during the Cold War, under Lenin and Stalin NOTE: Dictatorship is a form of government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed, while Totalitarianism describes a state that regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior of the people, the most extreme form...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document