Rome was a warring society who economy was based on expansion, plundering and eventually trading and living in the areas over which their armies had expanded Rome's control. Rome never got beyond the small shop concept of manufacturing, so this limited their adoption of technology. Artisans and craftsmen had little opportunity or use for new technology beyond what they worked with in the course of their making goods. Since there never was a factory system in the Empire, there were no owners who would have enjoyed a monetary gain from new technology.Technology was limited to the existing or traditional tech and no one was looking to make, say, a faster loom or quicker method to make pots and pans. The only tech that interested them would have been for better or improved weapons or tactics or an improvement in their sailing vessels. No reason to improve led to a decline in their society and this is a society that was dead ended, or one that had stopped growing intellectually. Tech is a form of growth and the more growth the more vibrant the society. Some believe when Rome couldn't expands anymore, their culture and society died.
2 The Han society is one in which change is openly questioned and usually avoided. Again, the traditional way of doing things was considered best. This was because their society revered the ancient or traditional. Change was to be avoided in a society where the ancient ways were best. Again, the society never developed beyond small shop manufacture and we know they never sought change or improvement. Change or an improved method of manufacture could mean a loss of employment for a craftsman. Loss of one's employment would mean poverty, eventually starvation, begging on the streets and exclusion from society because you were not producing and, likely as not, death as a result of losing one's class or rank in society. Look at all the poverty and the vase underclass of society that came about as a result of the modern Industrial Society.
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