Hamidian Era: Arab Provinces, and Balkan and Anatolian Regions under the Ottoman Empire

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Topics: Ottoman Empire
Rubel Ahmed

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Word count: 2,684

3. “Analyse the Hamidian era from the perspective of either the Balkan or the Anatolian or the Arab provinces, discussing the different ways in which that region was treated by the Ottoman government, and the different ways that region responded”.

The Balkan region of the Ottoman Empire had always been a crucial part of it vast domains. The Balkan states can be credited with shortening the lifespan of a troubled empire. More specifically, Albania it can be argued contributed a great deal in bringing about the eventual demise of the Empire. The late British MP Audrey Hebert succinctly stated that, “In the end, like Samson in the Temple of Gaza, they pulled down the columns of the Ottoman Empire upon their own head. It was the Albanians and not the Serbs or Bulgars or Greeks who defeated the Turks”. It is strange then that not enough research has been done to deeply analyze the Albanian nations’ contributions towards the Ottoman Empire.

This essay will look at the Hamedian agenda in relation to the Balkan region, focusing specifically on the Albanian nation. This essay will analyze the Sultans policies vis-à-vis the Albanians to conclude that in the end the Empire lost a once great ally of the Empire due to its detrimental centralizing policies, which attempted to strip away national in a time when nationalism was a central them in the region. The loss of Albania within the Balkans culminated in the Young Turk revolution, which brought an end to the Hamedian era.

Sultan Abdul Hamid II is generally remembered as a pious ruler. The Hamedian agenda was multi-faceted. The Sultan sought to unify the Muslims under the banner of Islam to repel outside intruders. He also wanted complete authority in order to centralize his Empire. The Ottoman context at this time was characterized by strong nationalist calls from within the Empire. This sweeping nationalism was inspired by Western Europe and various European states



Bibliography: * Carter V. Findley. Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789-1922. Princeton, 1980. * Donald Quataert. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. Cambridge, 2000. * Hall, Jr, William W. Why Albania, The North American Review, Vol. 227, No. 6 (Jun., 1929), pp. 752-756. University of Northern Iowa, 1929. Stable URL: (http://www.jstor.org/stable/25110776), * Hanioğlu, M * Hobhouse Broughton, J. C. A Journey through Albania. Philadelphia: 1817; New York, 1971. * Hurewitz, J.C. Diplomacy in the near and middle east, a documentary evidence: 1535-1914. Princeton, 1956. * Lidhja e Prizrenit ne dokumente Osmane * Lybyer, A.H. The government of the Ottoman Empire in the time of Suleiman the magnificent, (Cambridge, 1933) * Malcolm, Noel * Marmullaku, Ramadan. Albania and Albanians (London, 1975), George W. Gawrych, The crescent and the eagle. New York, 2006. * Reinkowski, Maurus. Double struggle, no income: Ottoman borderlands in Northern Albania. Original beitrag erschienen in:International journal of Turkish studies 9 (2003), S. [239] – 253. * Skendi, Stravo. The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912. Princeton, 1967. * Various authors. Albanian Identities: Myth and History. London, 2002. [ 2 ]. S. Deringil, The well-Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimisation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1909, (London: 1999), p46 [ 3 ] [ 4 ]. M. Şükrü Hanioglu, A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire, (Princeton 2008), p130 [ 5 ] [ 6 ]. . R. Marmullaku, Albania and Albanians (London, 1975); Skenndi, The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912, (Princeton, 1967), Gawrich, The crescent and the eagle;, Albanian Identities: Myth and History, various authors, (London, 2002). [ 7 ]. H.A.R. Gibb and H. Bowen, Islamic Society and the West, (London, 1950) Vol. I Part I, p74 [ 8 ] [ 12 ]. J. C. Hobbhouse, A Journey Through Albania, (New York: 1971) p131.

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