guidance and counseling

Topics: Behaviorism, Psychology, Behavior Pages: 4 (1374 words) Published: November 3, 2013
The scientific development of behavioural theory can be traced directly from Pavlov’s 19th century discovery in classical conditioning and important foundations were laid down by J.B Watson (1913).Significant publications about behaviorism were done by Watson, Thorndike and the rest. Behaviorism is a set of learned responses to events, experiences or stimuli in a person’s life history. Behavior can be modified by providing appropriate learning conditions and experiences. Behaviorists stood for the aspects that can be measured and observed. Behaviorists focus on specific behavioural goals, emphasizing precise and repeatable method. The approach has been successful in the treatment of smoking, weight control and other eating disorders, substance abuse, behavior problems and speech difficulties.(Gibson and Mitchel 2003). Behavioral theory assumes that maladaptive behavior is to a considerable degree acquired through learning through the process of conditioning. Counselling, for a behaviorist involves the systematic use of a variety of processes and procedures with specific goals between the counselor and the client. A wide variety of techniques drown from the knowledge of learning processes are employed for the purpose of counseling and therapy such as operant learning; an approach based on the usefulness of reinforcements and timing of their presentation in producing change.(Windy, D and Rhena, B 2008). Strengths of behavioural theory:

Behavioral theory is based observable behavior, it is therefore easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research. Effective therapeutic techniques such as intensive behavioral intervention, behavior analysis, token economies and discrete trial training are all rooted in behaviorism. These approaches are often very useful in changing maladaptive or harmful behaviours in both adults and children. Criticism of behavioral theory:...

References: Mutie E.K and Kyungu P .M (1999) Guidance and Counseling for schools and colleges; oxford university press; Nairob
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