Introduction and Definition
A.1 Group’s nature and purpose
It is a composition of at least two (2) or more people who share certain common beliefs, interact with one another in a continuing basis, and view themselves as being members of a group- which is a distinct entity- for the purpose of achieving common goals (Vecchio, 1988; Newstrom & Davis, 1997; French, Rees, and Rumbles, 2008). First of all, before certain individuals get to interact with each other they are most likely to share common beliefs and/or goals which will in turn push them to form a group, meeting for a continuing basis (Vecchio, 1988) until the group’s purpose is achieved. Members of a group are aware of others and of their group. When two (2) or more people form a group, there will be 3 entities all in all: the 2 of them and their relationship which is the group itself (Newstrom & Davis, 1997). A collection of passengers in a jeepney is not a group. But, if these aggregate of persons get irritated by the continued smoking of the jeepney driver despite his seatmate’s requests to stop and together agree to reprimand the driver in order to stop the unwanted act, properties of a group then start to develop. From this example we can see that there was a problem and a need to address it for the common good. Those persons had something on common; they all hate the smoking of the driver furthermore; in addressing the act, an individual seemed not enough. They have to develop consensus and agree on what and how to say and who will say it. Most importantly, groups exist because it is man’s nature to as a social animal according to Vecchio (1988) to seek the company of others to satisfy his basic social need (Based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) of security, love and belongingness1, and self-esteem needs (Kozier, et al., 2004) and to accomplish tasks that are otherwise impossible to accomplish when working alone. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
According to Luthans (2005), a comprehensive definition of a group in an organization is that its members are: 1.
Motivated to join
See the group as a distinct interacting unit of people
Contribute in various amounts to the group processes
Reach agreements and disagreements
A group is said to be a “sociological and psychological” and “unified unit” (Luthans, 2005; French, Rees, and Rumbles, 2008) stressing how a group fulfils man’s social needs and his realization that there are things that can (or most of the time) be done with other’s help (for example, monitoring patients in the ward). Hence, the adage, “no man is an island” and “together we stand, divided we fall”. There are certain forces that affect a group like how it forms, certain processes like task and maintenance roles, and how they affect members, other groups and ultimately the organization and they are collectively called group dynamics (Newstrom & Davis, 1997; Marquis and Houston, 2006; Luthans, 2005).
A.2 Why is it important to study groups and group dynamics?
In organizations, there are many tasks and activities that require communication, coordination, and cooperation among organizational members that can only be acquired through group and team effort. Even an orientation of nurse trainees in a hospital cannot be made possible without the help of a formal group assigned to it. Nowadays, there are many restructuring of organizations onto somewhat less vertical structures (French, Rees, and Rumbles, 2008) in order to meet the increasing consumer demands by distributing additional responsibilities to employees. An example is the healthcare system in the USA, the ever expanding role of nurses from those traditionally held views of a “physician’s assistant” to independent practitioners and professionals like Certified Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) and Nurse Practitioners (NPs) is imminent (Ellis and Hartley,...
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