The Green Revolution
Sumit Shah, SYBCom. Honours
Table of Contents
| Page No.
| Intense Agricultural District Program * Continued expansion of farming areas * Double-cropping existing farmland * Irrigation * Using seeds with improved genetics * Fertilizers * Food Corporation of India and the Agriculture Prices Commission * Research, Education, and Extension
| Positive Effects * Increase in Production / Yield * Economic and Political Impact * Better land use by employing two and three crop pattern * Better scientific methods * New seeds and other product developments
| Adverse Effects * Degradation of land * Pest infestation has gone up * Loss of bio diversity * Chemicals in water * Water table has gone down * Loss of traditional seeds and myths of the new variety * Regional Disparities
| Acknowledgements and Reference
The President of India in his address to the nation on the 50th year of India’s independence mentioned several landmark scientific achievements. The most important of all the achievements would be that of near self-sufficiency in food and the agricultural transformation in the country. This was primarily due to the series of agricultural changes that happened in agricultural production after 1965 and was called “Green Revolution”. This achievement occurred during Indira Gandhi’s tenure as Prime Minister. Between 1947 and 1967, efforts at achieving food self-sufficiency were not entirely successful. The Green Revolution was officially known as the Intense Agricultural District Programme (IADP), aimed at converted India from a country in need of food aid from outside, to a major exporter of food. It was implemented under the 4th Five Year Plan. However, the term "Green Revolution" is applied to the period from 1967 to 1978.
India was a very high importer of food grains to meet the every rising hungry population. During 1966, India imported a total of 10 million tonnes of food grains. However, one-fifth of the population did not have physical and economic access to food. Now, this whole scenario has changed. India's food-grains production has hovered around a fifth of a billion tonnes mark in recent years. This is more than sufficient for India’s needs hence India frequently exports its surpluses. In 55 years India has emerged from famine ridden colonial times, to becoming a famine free Republic even though its population has nearly tripled in that period. More significantly, India during the partition of 1947 lost some of its most fertile lands in the form of the Sindh province in Pakistan. But India has managed to withstand all these difficulties and achieved its objective of food self sufficiency. India was the greatest success story of the Green Revolution.
Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring in the late 1960s that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. In India this movement was spearheaded by Dr. M. S. Swaminathan.
In this report we will analyze the reasons and events leading to the implementation of Green Revolution in India. We will also study the positive and negative impact of this movement.
After the partition in 1947, India had to fight two major wars with Pakistan in 1948 and China in 1962. This put a lot of strain on the country’s already poor resources. It was never self sufficient in food. Even before the partition a huge famine had struck West...
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