Sustainable Architecture for India
Yusuf Turab, Managing Director, Y.T. Enterprises, IGBC Accredited Professional and LEED Green Associate, Coimbatore.
It is important to address sustainable architecture because the practice is almost nonexistent in Indian cities. Also, there seems to be some ambiguity on what exactly constitutes sustainable architecture. What is Sustainable Architecture?
If sustainability were to be given a shape, it would be the shape of a circle. Any aspect of living that can keep moving in a circle without interfering with objects outside this circle can be termed as sustainable, a bit like the Indian political system, where we seem to make enormous strides but every few years we realise that we are back to square one. In his enormously successful book Design with Nature, published in 1969, Ian McHarg argues that:
"If one accepts the simple proposition that nature is the arena of life and that a modicum of knowledge of her process is indispensable for survival and rather more for existence, health and delight, it is amazing that how many apparently difficult problems present a ready solution."
The key to architectural sustainability is to work with, rather than against, nature; to sensitively exploit and simultaneously avoid damaging natural systems. Architectural sustainability mirrors the view that it is necessary to position human activities as a non-damaging part of the ongoing ecological landscape, with a belief that 'nature knows best'.
Any green building, architect should identify places with intrinsic suitability for agriculture, forestry, recreation and urbanization. Designing with nature at a building level is about recognizing sun paths, breezes, shade trees and rock formations that can be used to create something that people can inhabit comfortably, while recognizing that natural features such as trees, animal tracks, habitats and natural drainage systems must be 'protected.'
For example, if one were to choose a device with high shading coefficient in the summer and a low shading coefficient in the winter, a vine may be used in place of a mechanical system. The vine shades the building when (and only when) it is needed, and the building provides a home for the vine. Thus both the building and the 'component' of nature are sustainable. By adding rainwater collection, reed beds for sewage and perhaps wind or solar power for electrical energy, the building can be independent of imported service and exported waste, keeping its environmental footprint within the footprint of the site. The final archetypal visual image is one of an isolated, self-sufficient buildings dominated by its surrounding landscape. A bit like the circle I talked about earlier. Green Building in India
It goes without saying that the version of architecture that I described above is seldom practiced in India, or anywhere else in the world for that matter. The latest market-driven surge in green building has had some success at bridging the gap between current building practices and true sustainability.
India is now the second largest market for green buildings. This trend is completely market driven and has been achieved with very little government support.
While this sounds fantastic, there is an urgent need in India to extend the technological understanding of sustainable architecture and to incorporate socio-cultural aspects in its production. The need emerges from the fact that Indian architects have failed to recognize the significance of the social dimension in facilitating the sustainable development.
One challenge to India's acceptance of sustainable architecture is the gap between technology and economic status. On one end, sophisticated technology-based solutions have been developed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, but they require a high initial investment that very few can afford. On the other end, affordable, low-cost technologies, such as mud architecture, are already...
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