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Greek and Roman Gods and Goddesses; Adventure of Odysseus

By fedssantos Feb 26, 2013 1503 Words
Major Gods and Goddess

|Greek Name |Roman Name |Function | |Aphroditē |Venus |Goddess of love, beauty, and desire. She was | | | |married to Hephaestus. Aresis her lover and | | | |she loves him as well. Eros is her son. | |Apollōn |Apollo |God of the Sun, music, archery, poetry, | | | |healing, and prophecy. He is Artemis' twin | | | |brother, and Son to Zeus. | |Arēs |Mars |God of war, murder and bloodshed. Brother | | | |to Hephaestus, and is the lover of Aphrodite | | | |and son of Zeus. | |Artemis |Diana |Goddess of the hunt, wilderness, wild animals,| | | |especially deer and fawns, night, and the | | | |moon. Apollo is her twin brother. Artemis is | | | |the virgin goddess and is also protector of | | | |maidens. | |Athēna |Minerva |Goddess of wisdom, weaving, the arts, warfare | | | |and reason. She is the favorite daughter of | | | |Zeus. | |Dēmētra |Ceres |Goddess of fertility, grain and harvest. | | | |Demeter is a sister of Zeus. Her daughter is | | | |Persephone, Hades' wife. | |Dionysus |Bacchus |God of wine, parties/festivals, madness and | | | |merriment. He is a son of Zeus. | |Hades |Pluto |God of the Underworld. Brother of Poseidon and| | | |Zeus. | |Hēphaistos |Vulcan |God of fire and the forge. Ugly son | | | |of Hera and Zeus is his father in some | | | |accounts. Married to Aphrodite, but she does | | | |not love him because he is deformed and as a | | | |result is cheating on him with Ares. | |Hēra |Juno |Goddess of marriage, women and childbirth. | | | |Zeus' wife and sister. | |Hērmēs |Mercury |God of flight, thieves, commerce and | | | |travelers. Messenger of the gods. Zeus's son | | | |by Titanness. | |Poseidon |Neptune |God of the sea. His sons are the Heavenly | | | |Triplets, Polyphemus and Triton and the | | | |Cyclops. His weapon is a trident by which he | | | |can stir up the seas, wreck ships and drown | | | |sailors. | |Zeus |Jupiter |The father of all fathers, the wisdom and | | | |light. The king of the gods after killing his | | | |father, Kronos, who ate Zeus's siblings but | | | |their mother managed to save baby Zeus. When | | | |Zeus grew up, he fed Kronos a mixture of wine | | | |and mustard to make him vomit his immortal | | | |siblings who had grown up in Kronos's stomach.| | | |Zeus is the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god| | | |of the sky, thunder and lightning. Though he | | | |is married more than once, his real queen is | | | |Hera. Zeus is the father of Hermes, | | | |Hephaestus, Hercules, Dionysus, Athena, Ares, | | | |Apollo, Artemis and Persephone. |

Minor Gods and Goddesses

|Greek Name |Roman Name |Function | |Aeolus |Aeolus  |God of winds (at birth was mortal made | | | |Immortal) | |Ariadne |Libera |Goddess of passion and mazes (was a mortal | | | |princess engaged to Theseus but was abandoned | | | |and married to the god Dionysus and made | | | |Immortal.) | |Asclepius |Aesculapius/Asklepios |God of medicine. | |Bia | |Goddess of force. | |Charites |Gratiae |Goddesses of charm, beauty, human creativity, | | | |and fertility. | |Chione |Chione |Goddess of snow (her father is one of the gods | | | |of the winds). | |Cratos | |God of strength and power. | |Deimos |Metus |Personification of terror; brother of Phobos. | |Eileithyia |Lucina |goddesses of childbirth | |Enyo |Bellona |goddesses of war and peacekeeping | |Eos |Aurora |Goddess of dawn and sister of Selene and Helios| |Erinyes |Furiae /Eumenides |Otherwise known as The Furies. Goddesses of | | | |revenge. | |Eris |Discordia |Goddess of discord. | |Eros |Cupid |God of love | |Ganymede |Ganymede |Cupbearer of the Olympians. | |Geras | |God of old age. | |Harmonia |Concordia |Goddess of harmony. | |Hebe |Juventas  |Goddess of youth. | |Hecate |Trivia |Goddess of magic, witchcraft, necromancy and | | | |crossroads. | |Helios |Hyperion/Sol |God of the sun and brother of Selene and Eos | |Hestia |Vesta |Goddess of the hearth, fireside, family, and | | | |home, was one of the Olympians until she gave | | | |up her throne on for Dionysus, occupies fire on| | | |Olympus. | |Hypnos |Somnus |God of sleep. | |Iris |Iris |Goddess of the rainbow. | |Ianus |Janus |God of doors, gates and new beginnings | |Keres |Tenebrae |Goddesses of violent Death. | |Leto |Latona |Mother of Artemis and Apollo. | |Melinoe | |Goddess of ghosts. | |Metis | |Mother of Athena | |Moirae: Klotho, Lachesis and Atropos |Parcae |Controllers of life and destiny. | |Momus | |God of blame. | |Moros | |God of Doom. | |Muses |Pierides |Representatives of the arts, sciences and | | | |songs. | |Nemisis |Nemesis |Goddess of consequences and revenge. | |Nike/Nice |Victoria |Goddess of victory. | |Oneiroi: Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos | |Personifications of dreams and sons of Hypnos. | |Paean | |Doctor of the gods. | |Pallas |Pallas |god of warfare | |Pan |Pan |God of the Wild. | |Persephone |Proserpina  |Goddess of spring and flowers and wife of | | | |Hades, hence queen of the Underworld. | |Phobos |Terror |God of Phobias and fear in general; brother of | | | |Deimos. | |Selene |Luna |Goddess of the moon and sister | | | |of Helios and Eos | |Thanatos |Orcus/Mors |God of peaceful death. | |Triton |Triton |god of ships, prince of Atlantis | |Tyche |Fortuna |Goddess of luck, destiny and fortune. | |Zelus |Invidia |God of dedication. |

Burial/Funeral Games

1. Relatives of the deceased, primarily women, conducted the elaborate burial rituals that were customarily of three parts: the prosthesis (lying out of the body, the ekphora (funeral procession), and the interment of the body or cremated remains of the deceased.

2. The games included a chariot race, wrestling, boxing matches, running races, discus, archery, spear throwing and a bloody duel between two champions.

Adventures of Odysseus

1. Island of Ismarus 

First, they arrive at Ismarus, the land of the Cicones. They sack the city, killing the men and taking the women and treasure as bounty. They are later attacked by the Cicones. 

2. Island of the Lotus - Eaters 

Second, They arrive in the Land of the Lotus-eaters. Here, his men eat lotus flowers. The flowers cause the men to lose their desire to return home, so Odysseus must force them back to the ship. 

3. Island of Cyclops

Third, at the Cyclops' cave, his men escape being eaten only by Odysseus blinding the one-eyed Polyphemus (son of Poseidon). He does so by claiming that his name is "No One." When Polyphemus screams, he says that "No One" is attacking him, so his fellow cyclopes do not come to his rescue. As a result, Poseidon threatens Odysseus with much suffering and the ultimate loss of his men.  4. Island of King Aeolus 

Fourth, King Aeolus gives Odysseus and his men a place to stay for about a month. Upon their departure, Aeolus puts winds in a bag and gives them to Odysseus, instructing him not to open it. The crew get close to Ithaca, but while Odysseus sleeps, they open the bag of winds and are flown back towards Aeolia. 

5. Island of Laestrygonians 

Fifth, at the Land of the Laestrygens, giant cannibals eat all but one of Odysseus' ships. 

6. Island of Circe 

Sixth, at Aeaea, the enchantress Circe turns Odysseus' scouting party into pigs. But Hermes, the messenger of the gods, gives Odysseus an herb against a similar fate. Odysseus sleeps with Circe and convinces her to turn the pigs back into men. She does so, but only after they have stayed on her island for a year. She tells Odysseus that he must go see Tiresias in the Underworld before continuing his journey. 

7. Underworld 

Seventh, Odysseus meets with the blind prophet Tiresias in the Underworld. He encounters lost family and friends. Tiresias warns him of the dangers that lie ahead. 

8. Island of Sirens 

Eighth, Odysseus and his men sail past the Sirens, who sing songs to lure passing crews and ships to their deaths. Odysseus orders his men to fill their ears with wax and to tie him to the mast of the ship, so that he may hear the songs but will not be able to succumb to their seduction. 

9. Scylla and Charybdis 

Ninth, Odysseus must choose between sailing by either Scylla, a six-headed monster, or Charybdis, a giant whirlpool. Taking Circe's advice, he sails by Scylla, who devours only six of his men and allows them to pass. 

10. Island of the Sun 

Tenth, They go to Thrinacia, the home of the sacred cattle. Before docking the ship, he forces his men to swear an oath forbidding them from eating the cattle. However, after their food supply depletes, the men begin to kill and eat the sacred cattle. Angered, the gods punish Odysseus and his men. After this adventure, Odysseus is the last man standing and must float away on the branch of a fig tree (his men and ship were all destroyed by the gods). 

11. Island of Calypso 

Eleventh, Odysseus goes to Ogygia, home of Calypso. She keeps him captive for seven years. She gives him a raft but it is soon destroyed by Poseidon, who is still angry with him because of the death of his cyclops son. 

12. Island of Nausica 

Twelfth, Odysseus floats to Scheria, where he is taken in by the princess and king. He tells them his story and they agree to help him by providing him with one of their best ships to return to Ithaca. 

13. Odysseus kills the suitors

And thirteenth, Odysseus finally returns home only to find that his house is full of suitors for his wife. He must prove himself and soon, after his victory against the suitors, must show his identity. 

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