top-rated free essay

Gre Issue

By bibilin Jan 17, 2012 26228 Words
1. 題庫所有244道Issue題目的寫作提綱

GRE寫作Issue問題題庫分析與提綱
第一類 社會

2. "Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society." 歸根結底,競爭對於社會是利多弊少。
 
Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society. 1. Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society. 2. In democratic countries, when parties and candidates compete for power, the public benefits. 3. Admittedly, when competition gets out of the control of mores and laws, society will suffer. 競爭對於社會的優點和缺點

------------------------------
 
3. "It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations." 與其花錢進行可能有助於後代的長期性研究,還不如把錢花在迫在眉睫,已經存在的社會問題上。  

Humanity should take into account both long-term interests and short-term interests when making budgets. 1. Naturally, each generation is most concerned about solving problems that immediately confront them. 2. However, what differentiates human beings from other animals is that humans have a sense of future and are morally responsible for the well-being of their descendents. 3. Therefore, as beneficiaries of previous generations, each generation should make its own contribution for the well-being of future generations.

當務之急和百年大計的關係
------------------------------
9. "Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience, their ideas will have little use."  

近些年來,學科已經細化到了相當的程度以至於學者們的理念只影響小範圍的人群。除非學者們能擁有影響到大範圍的人群,否則他們的理念將幾乎毫無用處。  
The speaker oversimplifies the issue of academic influence on society. 1. It is true that academic disciplines have become so specialized nowadays that some scholar’s seemingly idiosyncratic ideas only reach a narrow audience. 2. It is also true that social scientists’ failing to reach the large public makes it impossible for their ideas to contribute to society. 3. Nevertheless, scholars in certain realms are doomed to live in an isolated and purely academic world, which does not necessarily mean that their ideas will have little use.

過分專業化問題 overspecialization
------------------------------
15. "The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior."  
一個社會的穩定取決於該社會對人們極端行為所作出的反應。  
It is true that how a society copes with the extremes of human behavior largely determines the society’s stability. 1. The extremes of human behavior--such as violence or strikes--usually dictate grave social troubles. 2. One solution to these social problems is suppressing, which proves effective in the short run and counterproductive in the long run. 3. The most effective way of responding to such problems is constructive communication and sometimes compromise. 抽象型題目

------------------------------
 
16. "Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."  

儘管許多人認為現代生活的奢華和便利是絲毫沒有壞處的,但是這實際上讓人們無法成為真正強大和獨立的個體。 Agree
1. Consider first the effect of the automobile on our independence as individuals. In some respects the automobile serves to enhance such independence. 2. However, we have become slaves to the automobile.

3. Consider next the overall impact of the automobile on our strength as individuals, by which I mean strength of character, or mettle. 4. In contrast, there is certain strength of character that comes with eschewing modern conveniences such as cars, and with the knowledge that one is contributing to a cleaner and quieter environment, a safer neighborhood, and arguably a more genteel society.  社會和個人之發展問題

------------------------------
 
17. "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."  
有兩種法律:公正的和不公正的。每個社會成員都有責任遵守公正的法律,但是更重要的是,更應該不遵守和反抗不公正的法律。  Disagree:
1. First, whether a law is just or unjust is rarely a straightforward issue. The fairness of any law depends on one’s personal value system. 2. The fairness of a law also depends on one’s personal interest, or stake, in the legal issue at hand. 3. Disobeying unjust laws often has the opposite effect of what was intended or hoped for. 4. By justifying a violation of one sort of law we find ourselves on a slippery slope toward sanctioning all types of illegal behavior, including egregious criminal conduct.

社會和個人之法律公正麼?
------------------------------
 
 
19. "If a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success before the well-being of its individual citizens."  
如果一個社會要繁榮就必須將社會整體的成敗置於單個社會成員的幸福之上。 Disagree
1. The society is made up of individual citizens; therefore, the development of individual citizens is crucial for the development of the whole society. 2. A society that ignores the well being of individual citizens is bound to end up in social turmoil or revolution. 少數和多數之成功

------------------------------
20. "National governments should devote more of their social programs and services to children than to adults."  
任何一個國家的政府都應該為孩子而不是為成人建設更多的社會專案和服務。  
1. No one would deny the fact that it is in the young generation that lies the future of our society. 2. Therefore, we should attach enough importance to the development of children. 3. However, this does not mean that we can ignore the interests of adults, who make up the major work force of our society. 孩子和成人之社會建設

------------------------------
22. "Many people believe that a few individuals or small groups (family, friends, teachers, celebrities, for example) have caused them to think and behave in the way they do. Yet it is always society as a whole that defines us and our attitudes, not a few individuals."  

很多人認為只是一些個人或者小團體(比如家庭、朋友、老師、名人)促成了他們的思維和行動。其實一直以來不是一些個人而是社會作為一個整體在定義我們和我們的態度。  
1. Individuals and small groups also change our attitudes and minds to a large extent. 2. Everyone influencing us is also influenced the society.
3. Internet is playing an ever more significant role in influencing people’s attitude and values. 少數和多數之定義人生
------------------------------
 
23. "Contemporary technology makes available many small pieces of factual information. As a result, people have become so preoccupied with bits of fragmented information that they pay too little attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives."  

現代技術使獲得大量細節資訊成為可能。其結果是人們全神貫注於七零八碎的資訊而很少去注意更大的問題和全局。  
1. Access to great deal of information help people get a wider view of an issue, thus help them prevent being limited in thoughts. 2. Technology helps us pay more attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives. 3. To prevent preoccupation by fragmented information, people should hold right view on information, not to assimilate all, but to percolate relevant ones from those needing only a glance. 少數和多數之細節資訊

------------------------------
29. "Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy."  

像演員、政治家和運動員這樣的公眾人物應該預料到大眾會對他們的私生活感興趣。當他們希望受人矚目的時候就應該至少預期到會失去一些隱私(被大眾得知一些隱私)。 Agree:
1. Intense media attention to the lives of public figures raises a presumption in the collective mind of the viewing or reading public that our public figures’ lives are far more interesting than our own. 2. The media consist of large corporations whose chief objective is to maximize shareholder profit. In pursuit of that objective, the media are simply giving the public what they demand—a voyeuristic look into the private lives of public figures. 3. Nevertheless, the statement should be qualified in that a political figure has reason to expect privacy than other public figures. 少數和多數之公眾人物的隱私

------------------------------
33. "Creating an appealing image has become more important in contemporary society than is the reality or truth behind that image."  
在當代社會,打造一個引人入勝的外表已經變得比外表下的內容更加重要了。  
I agree that image has become a more central concern, at least where short-term business or political success is at stake. Nevertheless, I think that in the longer term image ultimately yields to substance and fact. 1. The important role of image is particularly evident in the business world. 2. The growing significance of image is also evident in the political realm, particularly when it comes to presidential politics. 3. In the long terms, however, the significance of image wanes considerably.

外表和內容
------------------------------
36. "The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries."  
一個人是否偉大是由後人評定的而非他同時代的人。 1.贊同--偉大的成就需要由後人來評斷
2.一個成就偉大與否,是需要時間來證明的。
3.一些個人的成就會受到當代當權者的影響,而使成就不能被當代人所認同。 4.例如思想、教育等不能及時產生效果的事項,成就與否需要後代人的評論。

1. We do not require a rear-view mirror to recognize artistic greatness— whether in music, visual arts, or literature. The reason for this is simple: art can be judged at face value. 2. In contrast, in the sciences it is difficult to identify greatness without the benefit of historical perspective. 3. In the realm of business, in some cases great achievement is recognizable immediately, while in other cases it is not. 時間先後

------------------------------
40. "Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests, however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem."  

我們不應該僅僅關注學者和研究者的著作能否對社會做出貢獻。更重要的是關注他們如何追求實現自己的興趣,無論那些興趣顯得是多麼的非同尋常。  
Agree:
1. Who is to decide which areas of academic inquiry are worthwhile? Scholars cannot be left to decide; nor can regulators and legislators. 2. Secondly, by human nature we are motivated to pursue those activities in which we excel. 3. Thirdly, it is “idiosyncratic” and ”unusual” avenues of inquiry that lead to greatest contributions to society. 少數和多數之科學家

------------------------------
41. "Such non-mainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by mainstream science."  

研究界的一些非主流領域,比如星象學、占卜術和意念及超自然探索,在社會中起到了很重要的作用,因為它們滿足了人們無法從主流科學獲得的需求。  
1. Admittedly, these non-mainstream areas of inquiry address certain human needs, which mainstream science and other areas of intellectual inquiry inherently cannot. 2. However, because these pursuits are not rooted in reason, they are favorite pastimes of charlatans and others who seek to prey on dupes. 3. Furthermore, without any sure way to evaluate the legitimacy of these avenues of inquiry, participants become vulnerable to self-deception, false hopes, fantastic ideas and even delusions. 少數和多數之非主流學科

------------------------------
46. "While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of competition, a society can better prepare its young people for leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation."  

政府、體育界、工業界和其他領域中的一些領導者將他們的成功歸因於一種高度的競爭意識,然而一個社會還是應該更好的為那些即將成為領導者的年輕人灌輸一種合作的意識。  

Agree
1. The chief reason why we should stress cooperation in nurturing young people today is that, as tomorrow’s leaders, they will face pressing societal problems that simply cannot be solved apart from cooperative international efforts. 2. The second compelling reason for instilling in young people a sense of cooperation over competition is that effective leadership depends less on the latter than the former. 3. A third reason why instilling a sense of cooperation is to be preferred over instilling a sense of competition is that the latter serves to narrow a leader’s focus on thwarting the efforts of competitors.

------------------------------
 
47. "Society does not place enough emphasis on the intellect--that is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills."  
社會對於理性還是重視不夠,比如推理和認知的能力。

While the speaker might overlook the benefits of nurturing certain emotions and feelings, on balance I agree that it is by way of our heads rather than our hearts that we can best ensure the well-being of our society.

1. I concede that undue emphasis on cultivating the intellect at the expense of healthy emotions can harm and individual psychologically. 2. In many other respects, however, emphasizing emotions and de-emphasizing intellect can carry negative, even dangerous, consequences for any society. 3. The dangers of a de-emphasis on intellect are all too evident in contemporary America. 獨立題目

------------------------------
58. "The increasingly rapid pace of life today causes more problems than it solves."  
現代生活越來越快的節奏弊多利少。
 
Agree
1. The rapid pace of life has resulted in health problems in unprecedented large numbers. 2. Although people today have more leisure time, they are not in a better position than their ancestors to enjoy themselves. 3. More unfortunately, people seem to have become addicted to the rapid pace of modern life. 利多弊少題型

------------------------------

61. "High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition."  
最高榮譽比如諾貝爾獎實際上是在損害社會,因為這種獎項在暗示只有少數人才配得上這樣的榮譽。  
The fact that only a few people deserve high-profile awards is insufficient evidence to suggest that such awards are damaging to society. 1. Undoubtedly, high-profile awards suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition. 2. What is significant is that high-profile awards point out the right directions in which all individuals in particular fields should make efforts. 3. To make sure that high-profile awards serve the right purpose of society, it is imperative that the rules of the awards be fair and strictly adhered to.

少數和多數,精英和大眾
-----------------------------
65. "People have been so encouraged by society to focus on apparent differences that they fail to see meaningful similarities among ideas, individuals, and groups."  
人們被社會鼓勵而將注意力集中於顯而易見的差異上,以至於人們已經無法看到各種理念、個人和群體之間的有意義的相似。 People in different cultural environments would respond differently to this statement. 1. On the one hand, western cultures tend to focus on differences among ideas, individuals and groups. 2. The danger of traditional societies, on the other hand, is to ignore differences forcing individuals and groups to conform to one authority. 3. A healthy attitude is to be sensitive to both differences and similarities. 統一和差異

------------------------------
 70. "In any profession--business, politics, education, government--those in power should step down after five years. The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership."  

在任何領域中----商業、政治、教育、政府----掌權者應該在五年後就讓位。這是任何機構獲得成功的最好的方式:通過更新領導者而保持活力。  
Limiting the term of leadership is an effective way to prevent corruption and lack of initiatives. 1. When leaders have no fear of losing their power, they tend to abuse their power. 2. A new leadership usually has greater initiative and would bring in new ideas. 3. However, in certain realms such as business it might not be so necessary to limit the term of leadership. 4. Furthermore, new leaders often lack the necessary skill and experience to cope with existing problems; therefore, they need a period of time for adaptation. 新手和老手

------------------------------
72. "One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities."  
人們可以通過研究一個社會的主要城市來瞭解它最重要的特點。  
It is no longer true the major cities are characteristic of a society. 1. Major cities used to be the cultural centers of a society. 2. Nowadays, however, due to the influence of globalization, major cities throughout the world look more or less the same. 3. By contrast, the rural areas of a society maintain more of its cultural tradition. 少數和多數之以小見大

------------------------------
76. "Truly profound thinkers and highly creative artists are always out of step with their time and their society."  
真正深刻的思想家和充滿創造力的藝術家總是超前于他們所在的時代和社會的。  
To be more exact, great thinkers and artists are generally out of step with their time and society. 1. Many great artists remained obscure all their lives.
2. There are countless examples of original thinkers who were either ignored or misunderstood by their time and their society. 3. However, there are cases of greater thinkers or artists who were recognized and rocketed to instant fame in their own time and their own society. 另類天才

------------------------------
 
77. "People today are too individualistic. Instead of pursuing self-centered, separate goals, people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole."  

現在的人們太個人主義了。與其追求以個人為中心和孤立的目標,人們更需要明白滿足是源於為家庭、社區或者整個社會的更大利益的服務。  
Extreme individualism has become a serious threat to the social fabric and the welfare of all members of society. 1. Some people may claim that the greater good of the family, the community or society lies in the good of the individual, which justifies the pursuit of self-interests. 2. The problem daunting contemporary society is that egoism as run wild. 3. Today there is every need for the society to encourage individuals to work for the interests of others. 少數和多數

------------------------------
89. "Leaders are created primarily by the demands that are placed upon them."  
領導者主要是由身負的責任所造就的。
 
Generally speaking, leaders are the results of a combination of internal qualities and external conditions. 1. The demands place upon a person could challenge him or her to become a leader. 2. However, the statement seems to suggest that anybody can become a leader if demands are placed on him or her, which is unwarranted. 3. Besides opportunities, one also need to have certain qualities to make a leader. 時勢造英雄

------------------------------
93. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making."  

個人責任的概念是一種很必要的虛構。儘管社會必須讓個人對他們自己的行為負責,但是人們的行為很大程度上不是自己能夠左右的。 1. The claim that individual responsibility is a necessary fictions has some merit in that a society where individuals are not held accountable for their actions and choices is a lawless one, devoid of any order whatsoever. 2. A correlative argument for individual responsibility involves the fact that lawless, or anarchist, states give way to despotic rule by strong individuals who seize power. 3. As for the speaker’s second claim, it flies in the face of our everyday experiences in making choices and decisions.  

少數和多數之個人責任
------------------------------
113. "It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves."  
如果我們要定位自己最重要是要定位自己所處的社會團體。  
I strongly agree that we define ourselves primarily through our identification with social groups, as the speaker asserts.

1. Any developmental psychologist would agree that socialization with other children plays a critical role in any child’s understanding and psychological development of self. 2. As children progress to the social world of the playground and other after-school venues, their earlier recognition that they relate more closely to some people than to others evolves into a desire to form well-defined social groups, and to set these groups apart from others. 3. However, as young adults take on the responsibilities of partnering, parenting, and working, they appear to define themselves less by their social affiliations and more by their marital status, parental status, and occupation. ------------------------------

120. "So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present."  
現代社會是如此的嶄新和複雜以至於回首瞭解過去對於當代生活已經沒有太大幫助了。 Even though history offers few foolproof panaceas for living today, the author’s claim that today’s world is so unique that the past is irrelevant is too radical.

1. Admittedly, history has helped us learn the appropriateness of addressing certain social issues, particularly moral ones, on a societal level. 2. However, the only firm lesson from history about social ills is that they are here to stay.

現在和過去
------------------------------
126. "Society's external rewards are no measure of true success. True success can be measured only in relation to the goals one sets for oneself."  
社會給予的客觀獎勵並不能衡量真正的成功。真正的成功只能是取決於一個人為他自己設定的目標。  
Success should be gauged on a personal base.
1. Society’s external rewards can only be regarded as society’s recognition of one’s contribution to society. 2. For an individual person, a correct attitude is to gauge success in relation to the goals one sets for oneself. 3. Overemphasizing the social criterion of success tends to belittle the worth of an individual. 客觀和主觀

------------------------------

 
133. "The problems of modern society have led many people to complain: 'We live in terrible times.' Yet, given the choice, no one today would prefer to live in any other time."  
現代社會的問題是很多人都在抱怨:“我們生活在一個可怕的時代。”但是假設讓他們選擇的話,現在的人們仍然會選擇現在而不是其他的時代。  

We live in the best time of history.
1. Firstly, our living conditions today are superior to those of any past generations. 2. Secondly, technologies have made it possible for men to work under much more comfortable working conditions today than before. 3. Most of the problems troubling us today have been troubling human beings for a long time. 時間

------------------------------

140. "What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, and individual achievements have often resulted in the greatest discontent."  
被社會自詡為是它最偉大的社會、政治和個人成就的東西結果往往帶來最大的非議。 Agree with concession:
1. With respect to individual achievements, great achievers are by nature ambitious people and therefore tend to be dissatisfied and discontent with their accomplishments—no matter how great. 2. Individual achievements can often result in discontent on a societal level. 3. Turning from individual achievements to societal, including political, achievements, the extent to which great achievement have caused discontent often depends on one’s perspective. 社會和人民大眾

------------------------------

 
142. "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question authority."

當很多人都質疑權威的時候社會就會繁榮昌盛。 Agree with concession:
1. Admittedly, when many people question authority, some societal harm might result, even if a social cause is worthy. 2. While violence is rarely justifiable as a means of questioning authority, peaceful challenges to political and legal authority, by many people, are not only justifiable but actually necessary when it comes to enhancing and even preserving society’s well-being. 3. Questioning authority is also essential for advances in the sciences. 4. Similarly, in the arts, people must challenge established styles and forms rather than imitate them; otherwise, no genuinely new art would ever emerge, and society would be worse off.  

------------------------------

 
149. "The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through environmentally sensitive projects."  
保護野生環境最實際和最有效的途徑就是通過環保的(旅遊)項目吸引更多的旅遊者來這些地區(旅遊)。  

Disagree
1. Tourists swarming to visit the environmentally sensitive projects may pose a serious threat to the wildness areas. 2. The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to leave those places to take care of themselves. 環保和旅遊的關係

 
------------------------------
152. "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies."  
公司的經營者們唯一的責任就是在法律規定範圍之內為他們的公司賺盡可能多的錢。

In several respects this position has considerable merit; yet it ignores certain compelling arguments for imposing on businesses additional obligations to the society in which they operate. 1. On the one hand are convincing arguments that profit maximization within the bounds of the law should be a business executive’s sole responsibility. First, imposing on businesses additional duties to society in which they operate can, paradoxically, harm that society. 2. Secondly, by affirming that profit maximization within legal bounds is the most ethical behavior possible for business, more private enterprises and individuals will be encouraged enter the marketplace in the quest of profits. 3. On the other hand are compelling arguments for holding business executives to certain responsibilities in addition to profit maximization and to compliance with the letter of law. ------------------------------

-160. "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."  

對於一位強有力的領導者來說,最關鍵的能力就是要對一些原則和目標堅定不移。任何領導如果很頻繁的、很輕易的為大眾意志而轉移的話,他將會一事無成。

In addressing the issue it is helpful to consider, in turn, three distinct forms of leadership: business, political and social-spiritual.

1. In the business realm, effective leadership is generally defined, at least in our corporate culture, as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners. 2. In the political realm, stubborn adherence to one’s objective in the short term might serve a political leader’s interest in preserving his or her power, yet in the long term such behavior invariably results in that leader’s downfall. 3. Socio-spiritual leadership, in order to be effective, inherently requires that the leader remain steadfastly committed to principle. 少數和多數之領導與大眾

 
------------------------------
170. "The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people."  
一個偉大國家最真實的體現不是它的統治者、藝術家或者科學家的成就,而是他所有老百姓的普通福利(幸福)。

1. Admittedly, the overriding imperative of any democratic state is to enhance the general welfare of its citizenry. Yet the speaker fails to provide a clear litmus test for measuring that welfare. 2. Many scientific achievements serve to enhance a nation’s general welfare. 3. Artistic achievement is also needed to make a nation a better place for humans overall. 4. We should also be careful not to hastily assume that a nation is necessarily great merely by virtue of the achievements of individual citizens. 社會精英和人民大眾

the general welfare
------------------------------
171. "People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world than are people who try to act for the public good."  

能夠造福社會的是那些純粹出於個人原因而追求自己興趣知識的人,而不是那些打算為大眾謀福利的人。

Agree
1. By human nature we are motivated to pursue activities in which we excel. 2. Secondly, it is unusual avenues of personal interest that most often lead to the greatest contributions to society. 3. Thirdly, to adopt a view that runs contrary to the speaker’s position would be to sanction certain intellectual pursuits while proscribing others—which smacks of thought control and political oppression.

個人和整體之動機
------------------------------
174. "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."  
法律不應該是僵化或固定的,而應該根據不同的環境、時期和地點而足夠靈活。  
1. On the one hand, a certain measure of consistency, stability and predictability in our laws is required in order for us to understand our legal obligations and rights as we go about our day-to-day business as a society. 2. On the other hand, rigid laws can result in unfairness if applied inflexibly in all places at all times. 法律的靈活性

------------------------------
178. "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts and minds."  

通過法律可以控制或者限制人們的行為,但是立法是無法改變人類本性的。法律無法改變人們的感情和思想。  
It is necessary to realize the limits of law when we hail “rule by law”. 1. Common tells us that without laws, society would fall into a state of chaos. 2. However, legislation cannot reform human nature.

3. Society should depend on education to cultivate people’s hearts and minds. ------------------------------

180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."  
現代社會的很多問題是法律和立法系統無法解決的,因為道德行為是無法用法律約束的。 I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems. 1. Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our personal lives—to control what we do with and to ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society. 2. Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the greater good of society, because on balance their costs far outweigh their benefits. 3. In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律

------------------------------
 
185. "Scandals--whether in politics, academia, or other areas--can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."  
醜聞----無論是政治、學術還是其他領域----可能會是有用的。醜聞可以用演說家或者改革家無法使用的手段讓我們注意到某些問題。 1. On the one hand, scandals can sometimes serve to call our attention to pervasive social or political problems that we would otherwise neglect. 2. On the other hand, scandals can sometimes serve chiefly to distract us from more pressing community or societal problems.

------------------------------
  
193. "It is not the headline-making political events but the seldom-reported social transformations that have the most lasting significance."  
Transformation: change
真正具有長遠意義的,不是那些被炒作的政治事件,而是那些鮮有報導的社會變化。 Agree
1. The headline-making “sensational” political events are often superficial and short-lived. 2. The commercial interests of the mass media determine their preoccupation with the news value of events rather than the social value of events. 3. Social transformations usually take place slowly, and are hard to notice at their beginning.  

------------------------------
198. "Instead of encouraging conformity, society should show greater appreciation of individual differences."  
Conformity: agreement
社會應該多一些鼓勵個人間的差異而不是統一。  
There is no doubt that society should encourage individuals to stand out to show their unique character and qualities. 1. Conformity leads to the death of creativity.
2. A society that encourages individual differences will benefit from the creations and vitality of its people. 3. “Whatever crushes individuality is despotism, by whatever name it may be called.” (John Stuart Mill) ------------------------------

 203. "The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines."

瞭解一個社會特點最好的方法是去考察被這個社會視為英雄的人們的特點。

1. First consider the sports hero, whom in my observation society chooses not merely by virtue of athletic prowess. 2. Next consider the military hero, who gains heroic stature by way of courage in battle, or by otherwise facing certain defeat and emerging victorious. 3. On the other hand, consider a third type of hero: the champion of social causes who inspires and incites society to meaningful political and social change.

------------------------------

220. "The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize. As a result, the distance between fields of specialization has become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to influence each other." 知識的增加促使了人們的專業化。其結果是不同的專業化領域之間的差異變得越來越大以至於各個領域中的專業人員很少能夠互相影響了。  

Overspecialization in the academic world is liable to exert negative impacts on academic research in various fields, which makes it necessary for education to encourage interdisciplinary studies. 1. The dramatic increase in knowledge today has made it impossible for any one to keep pace with the latest developments in all academic fields. 2. As a result, specialists in different areas tend to focus only on their own area of study. 3. However, this overspecialization is harmful not only academically but also socially. 4. Schools should aim at cultivating not only specialists but also generalists. 少數和多數的關係之專業化

------------------------------

242. "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species, regardless of the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being." 社會應該以不計人類的努力、時間和金錢為代價,嘗試挽救每一個動植物物種。  
There is no need to save every plant and animal species regardless of the human costs. 1. The history of natural evolution has witnessed the extinction of some plants and animals species, which did not result in any harm to the environment. 2. Of course, if scientists can more or less prove that the extinction of a certain plant or species will cause some disastrous chain effects, we should make every effort to save it. 3. The primary responsibility of humans is to try to maintain the environment at its natural state, and then let nature do the rest job. 人類和物種

------------------------------
 

 
244. "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously, even when they claim to admire them." 大多數社會都沒把最偉大的思想家當回事,雖然有時候這些社會自稱是求才若渴的。  
Great thinkers are often wronged or ignored in many societies. 1. Confucius is regarded as a great thinker in China, but today few people pay much attention to what he actually said. 2. John Dewey was one of the greatest thinkers in American history, but few Americans including scholars know much about him. 3. In ancient Greece, the great thinker Socrates was sentenced to death. 社會和思想家

第二類 行為類
 
12. "People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic."  
人們的態度更多的是由臨時的情況或者環境所決定,而非人們自身的特點。  
Social environment does plays a more important role in forming a person’s attitudes. 1. Admittedly, people’s inborn temperament does play an important role in their attitudes. 2. However, more often than not, people’s attitudes are largely influenced by their immediate situation or surroundings. 3. It should also be noted that external factors not only influence people’s attitudes, but also shape their characters.

------------------------------
 
18. "Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and contrasting views of others does one really discover the value of that idea."  
只有通過排除異議和對照其他的觀點來捍衛一個理念,人們才能真正的發現該理念的價值所在。

Agree
1. Different viewpoints interconnect with each other. Only after careful comparison can we reach the soul of the idea. 2. Doubts and contrasting views can provide valuable use for reverences to our learning. 3. History is replete with illustrative cases in which doubts and contrasting views contribute to the consummation of our knowledge.

------------------------------

21. "Reform is seldom brought about by people who are concerned with their own reputation and social standing. Those who are really in earnest about reforming a government, an educational system, or any other institution must be willing to be viewed with disdain by the rest of the world."  

改革幾乎從來都不是由那些關心自己聲譽和社會地位的人發起的。那些真正熱衷於政府改革、教育改革和其他機構改革的人們一定都是甘於被他人輕視的。  
1. Reform means the redistribution of benefits of various levels; therefore, resist and dissatisfaction is inevitable. 2. Those who are not really in earnest about reform will retreat when facing difficulties in a reform.

------------------------------
 

 
25. "Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction--in other words, to make things as simple as possible."  
任何人都可以把事情簡單複雜化,但是需要真正努力和勇氣的恰恰相反,也就是說應該把事情變得盡可能的簡單。  
1. The statement brings immediately to mind the ever-growing and increasingly complex digital world. 2. Lending even more credence to the statement is the so-called “big government” phenomenon. 3. Adding further credibility to the statement is the tendency of most people to complicate their personal lives.

複雜和簡單
------------------------------
 

 
27. "No one can possibly achieve success in the world by conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of thinking."  
這個世界上沒有人能夠靠墨守陳規(行動或者思維上的)而獲得成功。  
1. Traditional ways of thinking are treasures which will prevent us from wasting time and energy on trial things. 2. However, we can create nothing if we are only confined to the conventional experience.

新手和老手之墨守成規和成功
------------------------------
 
31. "Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial."  
花在研究上的資金基本上都是不錯的投資,即使研究的結果是有爭議的。 Disagree with concession: 
1. I concede that the speaker is on the correct philosophical side of this issue. After all, research is the exploration of the unknown for answers to our questions, and for lasting solutions to our endure problems. 2. While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial, at the same time we should be circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague and whose potential benefits are too speculative. 3. No amount of research can completely solve the enduring problems of war, poverty and violence, for the reason that they stem from the certain aspects of human nature—such as aggression and greed.

現實和理想

------------------------------
 
35. "No matter what the situation, it is more harmful to compromise one's beliefs than to adhere to them."  
無論在什麼樣的情況下,折衷自己的信仰要比堅持有害。  
1. Having a belief is a good thing for an individual in a certain degree in the form of spiritual support. However, if the belief goes too extreme and even influences people’s life and family negatively, it is best to reconsider whether the belief worth so much persistence. 2. Choosing to compromise does not mean that we have to give up our original belief. On the contrary, we are finding a better way to perfect our belief.

信仰
------------------------------
 

 
37. "In most societies, competition generally has more of a negative than a positive effect."  
在大多數社會中,競爭一般是弊多利少。
Disagree 
1. Competition benefits the general public by providing people with cheaper products and better service. 2. Competition spurs innovation and invention, bringing new products and technology to multitudes. 3. Admittedly, we should notice the side effect of competition, which are shrinking profit, dishonesty, etc. 利多弊少之競爭

------------------------------

62. "The widespread idea that people should make self-improvement a primary goal in their lives is problematic because it assumes that people are intrinsically deficient."  
認為人們應該把自我進步當做是人生頭等大事的流行觀點是有問題的,因為這樣的觀點在假設人們是天生就有缺陷的。

Disagree
1. On the one hand, admitting that we are deficient is the first step towards progress. 2. On the other hand, smugness only leads to stagnancy.
3. A serious problem with modern society is that too many people fail to realize the need for self-improvement.  
獨立題目

------------------------------
 
64. "Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it."  
很多人懂得如何去獲得成功,但是很少有人知道如何最好的去利用成功。 1.  A common characteristic of contemporary society is that people everywhere are concerned about how to attain success. 2. Success is commonly understood as material gains.

3. However, success does not ensure happiness.
4. “Successful” people often ignore the interests and needs of other people, which renders their “success” meaningless.

Attain and sustain打江山容易,保江山難
------------------------------
 
68. "People make the mistake of treating experts with suspicion and mistrust, no matter how valuable their contributions might be."  
人們經常錯誤的猜疑和不信任專家,無論專家們的貢獻是多麼的有價值。  
Expert’s opinions should be evaluated objectively.
1. Generally speaking, experts’ opinions are comparatively more trustworthy than ordinary people’s when it comes to solving problems that require special expertise. 2. The reality of our society is that people tend to take for granted whatever experts say. 3. It is possible that sometimes experts do make mistakes which ordinary people can correct. 懷疑權威

------------------------------
 
71. "Spending time alone makes one a better companion to others."  
學會獨自消磨時光會使你更好地成為別人的夥伴。  
Agree
1. Admittedly, habitually isolating oneself from others does not automatically make one a better companion. 2. However, people who think and work independently will be able to bring new ideas and new perspectives to others. 3. One’s loneliness makes one crave for and cherish the opportunity to stay with others. 人際關係之個人時間和公眾時間

------------------------------
 
74. "The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."  
和一大群人交流想法或者價值觀的最有效方式是圖像而非語言。  
The use of images is not always more effective than that of language. 1. On the one hand, images are more vivid and easier for the largest audience to comprehend. 2. On the other hand, images tend to cause ambiguities.

3. The most effective way of communication is combing the use of images and that of language. 獨立題目
------------------------------
 
75. "The people who make important contributions to society are generally not those who develop their own new ideas, but those who are most gifted at perceiving and coordinating the talents and skills of others."  

對社會做出重要貢獻的人往往不是那些發展自己新想法的人,而是那些最善於察覺和調控他人天賦和技術的人。  
Generally speaking, the progress of society depends more on the contributions of leaders rather than the ordinary masses. 1. It should be admitted that individual thinkers and scientist make important contributions to society. 2. However, history is filled with examples that indicate the dramatic contributions to society made by the people who are capable of leading others toward a common goal. 3. Today, progress in every field is impossible without the joined efforts of individuals—through the coordination of leaders.

------------------------------
81. "Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress."  
出於愛國對於一個國家的尊崇往往不是促進進步而是阻礙進步。  Agree
1. It should be admitted that patriotic reverence for the history of a nation is a precondition of national cohesion. 2. However, irrational reverence for national history would result in social conservatism that rejects the introduction of any social reforms. 3. Blind reverence for national history would also cause fanatic nationalism, making impossible the communication between nations and cultures. 沙文主義

------------------------------
 
84. "In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant contribution without first being strongly influenced by past achievements within that field."  
在任何物質領域中,如果不首先接受該領域中過去成就的影響就不可能會有意義重大的成功。

Progress in any field is based on past achievements within that field. 1. In social sciences, the past achievements of a field are the rich sources of inspirations for formulating new theories in that field. 2. In natural sciences, scientists use the existing methods and equipments—the achievements of the past—to make new discoveries or inventions. 3. Even in creative fields such as arts and literature, mastering the achievements of the past is a precondition of creating new works. 現在和過去

------------------------------
 
86. "Young people should be encouraged to pursue long-term, realistic goals rather than seek immediate fame and recognition."  
年輕人應該被鼓勵去尋求長期的現實目標而不是追求眼前的名聲。  
1. Seeking immediate fame and recognition would turn out to be counterproductive. 2. Unfortunately, today’s education and society seem to attach more importance to immediate success. 3. In the long run, pursuing long-term goals not only benefit young people themselves but also the whole society. 現實和將來

------------------------------
 
87. "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries."  
在所有的研究領域中,新手要比專家更有可能獲得重要的發現。   Agree
1. Beginners have intense curiosity about the unknown and great courage to try new things, while experienced experts tend to be more conservative. 2. Furthermore, beginners are highly motivated and enthusiastic people who are eager to establish their career and fame. 新手和老手

------------------------------

91. "Most people think that their deeply held values are the result of rational choice, but reason often has little to do with the way people form values."  
大多數人認為他們深信不疑的價值觀是理性選擇的結果,但是理智往往對於人們形成價值觀幾乎根本不起作用。  
Individual’s deeply held values are usually not the result of rational choice, but the result of socialization. 1. It is the culture in which we live that provides us with the values. 2. Most people simply adopt the values instilled by their culture. 3. It is necessary to question the established values within a certain society. 理性和感性之價值觀

------------------------------

95. "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."  
人們在團隊中工作比獨立工作要更加有效率。團隊協作需要的合作能夠比個人間的競爭更加激勵人們。

1. In some jobs productivity clearly depends on the ability of coworkers to cooperate as members of a team. 2. In other types of jobs individual competition, tenacity and ambition are key to productivity. 3. On balance, however, my view is that cooperation is more crucial for an organization’s long-term productivity than individual competition. 競爭和合作之效率

------------------------------
   
99. "In any realm of life--whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options."  

在任何生活領域中----無論是學術、社會、商業還是政治----獲得成功的唯一道路就是採取現實的而不是理想化的觀點。實用的行為確保了生存,反之理想化的觀點正在趨於被更簡化的和更直接的選擇所取代。  
Idealism is just as crucial—if not more so—for long-term success in any endeavor, whether it be in academics, business, or political and social reform. 1. When it comes to academics, although the idealist-student might sacrifice a high overall grade average, the depth of knowledge, academic discipline, and sense of purpose the students gains will serve that student well later in life. 2. Considering the business world, without a dream or vision—that is, without strong idealist leadership—a firm can easily be cast about in the sea of commerce without clear direction, threatening not only the firm’s bottom line but also its very survival. 3. Finally, when it comes to the political arena, it is idealists—not pragmatists—who sway the masses, incite revolutions, and make political ideology reality. 理想和現實

------------------------------
 
118. "In any field of endeavor-the sciences, the humanities, the social sciences, industry, etc.-it is not the attainment of a goal that matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered on the way to the goal."  

在所有的物質領域中--科學、人文科學、社會科學、工業等等--能否達到目的並不重要,而在爭取達到目的的過程中獲得的想法和發現才更重要。  
In some cases, the statement makes sense; in other cases, it does not. 1. In academic studies, the goal of a project is but a general direction; what matters are the unexpected concrete findings on the way to the goal. 2. However, in industry and business, what is crucial is the attainment of a specific goal rather than the process toward that goal. 3. In politics, failing to achieve a promised goal might mean a calamity for a politician. 過程和結果

------------------------------
 
121. "At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species."  

在過去不同的地質時期,許多的物種因為自然作用而非人類行為而滅絕。因此,人類社會為了挽救瀕危物種而付出的巨大努力,尤其是以大量的資金和工作機會為代價,這樣做是毫無道理的。  

The statement raises a variety of issues about morality, conscience, self-preservation, and economics. On balance, however, I fundamentally agree with the notion that humans need not make “extraordinary” efforts—at the expense of money and jobs—to ensure the preservation of any endangered species.

1. There are three fundamental arguments for imposing on ourselves at least some responsibility to preserve endangered species, which are culpability, capability, and self-preservation. 2. On the other hand are two compelling arguments against placing a duty on humans to protect endangered species. The first is essentially the Darwinian argument that extinction results from the inexorable process of so-called “natural selection” in which stronger species survive while weaker ones do not. 3. Secondly, many animal extinctions are due to natural forces which are far beyond our ability. The more money and jobs it would cost to save a certain species, the lower priority we should place on doing so. 人類和自然--當務之急(資金、工作)和長遠考慮(物種)  

------------------------------
 
127. "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions."  
事實都是固執的。它不可能隨著我們的願望、喜好或者情緒而改變。

When it comes to certain aspect of our personal lives, and to historical events and scientific truths, no measure of desire or even passion can change external reality.

1. On an individual level, we all engage in futile attempts to alter facts—by pretending that certain things are not the way they are because they are inconsistent with our wishes or personal interests. 2. Nor can we alter facts by virtue of our inclinations or passions when it comes to history. Historical event is not rendered any less factual by either our ignorance or characterization of it. 3. Similarly, when it comes to science, our wishes and desires ultimately yield to the stubbornness of facts—by which I mean empirical scientific evidence and the laws and principles of the physical world. 客觀和主觀

------------------------------

136. "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare."  
沒有選擇的情況少之又少。

Agree
1. Our collective life experience is that we make choices and decisions every day—on a continual basis. Common sense dictates that humans have free will, and therefore the true absence of choice is very rare. 2. People often claim that life’s circumstances leave them with “no choice”. The fundamental problem with these sorts of claim is that the claimants are only considering those choice that are not viable or attractive. 3. Besides, the contention that we are almost invariably free to choose is far more appealing from a socio-political standpoint than the opposite claim. 獨立題目

------------------------------
 
137. "What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one problem for another."  
我們所稱之為進步的過程就是從一個問題變化到另一個問題。  
Agree
1. Industrialization, a great historical progress which has dramatically saved the limited labor force, has brought about environmental problems. 2. Urbanization, another breakthrough in human history, has witnessed a rise in crime rates and disintegration of communities. 3. However, there is no need to be pessimistic about progress.

獨立
------------------------------
 
139. "Every new generation needs to redefine 'right' and 'wrong' in its own terms and according to the conditions of its own time."  
每一代人都要根據自己時代的情況和自己的說法來重新定義對與錯。  
1. We should define some new items for better understanding of the development of techniques and enhancing the quality of our life. 2. However, rashness of redefining the terms may cause detrimental effects to our society. Such as the sex liberty in the U.S., which led to dramatic rise in juvenile delinquency. 3. Meanwhile, we should give no doubt to axioms.

時間
------------------------------
 
 141. "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is that personal economic success requires conformity."  
雖然大多數人都承認個人的利益,但是事實上個人的經濟成功需要的是一致。

Agree with concession
1. Regarding the sort of economic success that results from investing one’s wealth, the principles of investing dictate that those who seek risky investments in areas that are out of favor with the majority of investors ultimately reap higher returns than those who follow the crowd. 2. Turning to the sort of economic success that one achieves by way of one’s work, neither conformists nor non-conformists necessarily achieve greater success than the other group. 3. However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—personal economic success comes not to non-conformist but rather to those who can work most effectively within the constraints of established practices, policies and regulations. 個人和整體

------------------------------ 

145. "A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to changing social conventions without sacrificing one's principles."  
對於個性的最大考驗在於一個人是否能夠適應不斷變化的社會規範而不犧牲自己的原則。  
How to confront changing social conventions is a crucial challenge to one’s character. 1. Those who can adapt to the changing social conventions such as economic climate without sacrificing their principles are more likely to succeed. 2. However, an even more praiseworthy character is one who is willing to change his principles to adapt to the changing situations when those principles are out of date. 個體和整體

 
------------------------------
 
146. "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy are the most critical of it."  
對於一種想法或者政策最忠實的人往往是那些對其最嚴厲的人。  
Critical: Inclined to judge severely and find fault.
愛挑剔的傾向於進行嚴厲批判和找岔的
While I find this claim paradoxical on its face, the paradox is explainable, and the explanation is well supported empirically. Nevertheless, the claim is an unfair generalization in that it fails to account for other empirical evidence serving to discredit it. A. Are commitment and criticism mutually exclusive? One possible explanation is that individuals most firmly committed to an idea or policy are often the same people who are most knowledgeable on the subject, and therefore are in the best position to understand and appreciate the problems with the idea or policy. B. Lending credence to this explanation for the paradoxical nature of the speaker’s claim are the many historical cases of uneasy marriage between commitment to and criticism of the same idea or policy. C. In the face of historical examples supporting the speaker’s claim are innumerable influential individuals who were zealously committed to certain ideas and policies but who were not critical of them, at least not outwardly.

------------------------------
 
148. "Many people admire idealism, but it usually leads to disappointment or trouble."  
很多人嚮往理想主義,但是它實際上總是帶來失望或者麻煩。  
Idealism does more harm than good to society as well as individuals. 1. An idealist is one who, on noticing that a rose smells better a cabbage, concludes that it will also make better soup. 2. Political idealism such as communism brought catastrophes to former socialist countries. 3. Individually, idealism, if it were not balanced by pragmatism, would lead to personal failure. 4. Guided by practical plans, however, idealism can lead to hope and enthusiasm. 理想和現實

 
idealism: The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form. 理想主義用理想的觀點看待事物的行為或實踐行為 ------------------------------

156. "Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by the society in which we live."  
選擇只是一種假像。實際上,我們的生活是被我們生活其中的社會所控制的。  
1. Choice is a highly practical thing that everyone is confronted with all the time. 2. However, not every one can tackle choice properly with much easiness. 3. Society is also influenced and controlled by our way of living. 類似于現有環境後有意識

------------------------------
 
157. "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires."  
純粹客觀的觀察是不存在的。所有的觀察都是主觀的;觀察總是被觀察者的預期或者喜好所左右的。  
A. It would be tempting to afford the speaker’s claim greater merit than it deserves. After all, our everyday experience as humans informs us that we often disagree about what we observe around us. B. However, these sorts of subjective “observations” are actually subjective “interpretations” of what we observe. 主觀和客觀之觀察

------------------------------
 

162. "One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed."  

人們經常聽說個人需要為他們自己的生活負責任。然而,人們發現自己所處環境的存在要遠遠早於人們對其的認識。因此,個人責任的概念要比通常人們想像的要複雜和不切實際。  

The statement can help us understand better the concept of personal responsibility. 1. We all live in conditions that have been largely established by others. 2. The environment in which we act, often uncontrollable, exerts unforeseeable influence on our behavior. 3. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the objective conditions when we require a person to assume responsibility. ------------------------------

 
163. "Most people live, whether physically or morally, in a very restricted circle. They make use of a very limited portion of the resources available to them until they face a great problem or crisis."  

大多數人在物質上和精神上都生活在一個非常有限的圈子裏面。除非要面對嚴重的問題或者危機,否則他們僅僅會利用有效資源的極有限的一小部分。 Agree 
1. Many people are confined by the physical deficiencies or moral regulations in their way of living. They have to obey them to procure their reputation, fame, success, and so on. 2. However, when confronted with crisis and the like, people will use resources of others or of the community or even the whole society. ------------------------------

 
165. "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."  

在任何領域當中,領導作用總是來自於這些人,他們並不為傳統的觀念所動,而是極力渴望表達那些和主流思想不同的觀點和想法。

1. When it comes to political power, I would admit that a deep-seated psychological need to be noticed or to be different sometimes lies at the heart of a person’s drive to political power and fame. 2. Nevertheless, for every leading political voice driven to new ideas by a desire to be noticed or to be different, on can cite many other political leaders clearly driven instead by the courage of their convictions. 3. Turning to the arts, creative urges are born not of ego but rather of some intensely personal commitment to an aesthetic ideal. 4. As for the physical sciences, innovation and progress can only result from challenging conventional theories—that is, the status quo.  

------------------------------

168. "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it comes from someone who is an expert in that field."  
批判性的判斷在任何領域當中都是沒什麼用處的,除非它是來自於該領域中的專家。 1.  With respect to the social sciences, the social world presents a seamless web of not only anthropogenic but also physical forces, which interact in ways that can be understood only in the context of a variety of disciplines. 2. In contrast, the work of researchers in the purely physical sciences can be judged only by their peers. 統一和分歧之專家

------------------------------

175. "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual."  

革新的動力往往來自於個人;革新的細節可能來自於團隊,但是實質的革新都是個人努力和獨特思維的結果。

1. With respect to business innovation, I agree that it is the vision and commitment of key individuals—such as a firm’s founder or chief executive—from which business burgeon and innovative products, services, and marketing and management strategies emerge. 2. Nevertheless, teamwork and individual enterprise are not necessarily inconsistent, as the speaker would have us believe.

------------------------------

182. "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."
 
只相信聰明才智是危險的。
 
Intelligence is sufficient in some cases but not in any case. 1. In scientific studies regarding the physical world, we should depend only on intelligence for discovering and testing truths. 2. However, in the realm of human affairs, we have to use both our intelligence and our hearts to solve problems.

------------------------------

184. "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."  
在掌握足夠資料之前建立理論會導致嚴重的錯誤。  
1. A theory conjured up without the benefit of data amounts to little more than the theorist’s hopes and desires—what he or she wants to be true and not be true. 2. By theorizing before collecting data the theorist also runs that risk of interpreting that data in a manner which makes it appear to lend more credence to the theory than it actually does. ------------------------------

186. "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world."  
實用主義是我們現在主要的追求,一切的力量和才智都必須為其服務。任何並非顯著實用的東西在當今世界幾乎是沒有價值的。  
1. Practicality seems clearly to be the litmus test for education today. 2. Practicality also dictates what sort of art is produced today. 3. Practicality is also the overriding concern in contemporary politics. 4. On the other hand, the claim amounts to an overstatement when it comes to today’s scientific endeavors. 當務之急和長遠大計的關係

------------------------------
 
187. "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."  
擁護革新和接受新想法很簡單。但是在大多數人們看來,最困難的是接受把這些新想法付諸實現的方式。  
1. In areas of politics and law, new ideas are not often easily accepted. 2. Yet once society grows to accept these new ideas, it seems that it has an easier time accepting how they are put into practice. 3. In contrast, consider innovations in the natural sciences. It seems that we universally embrace any new technology in the name of progress. Of course there are always informed dissenters with legitimate concerns. 4. Yet the reasons why these dissenters oppose certain innovations have to do with their potential applications and uses, not with the innovations themselves. ------------------------------

 
188. "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it."  
成功,無論是學術上的還是職業上的,都涉及了適應新環境並最終改變新環境的能力。

1. Regarding academic success, the speaker overstates the significance of environment. 2. Turning next to professional success, and considering the two traditional professions of law and medicine, the speaker’s claim unfairly overrates the ability to change one’s professional environment as a key ingredient of professional success. 3. In contrast, when it comes to certain other professions, such as business and scientific research, the speaker’s claim is far more compelling. ------------------------------

192. "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning." 在生活的所有領域中,成功往往更多的來自于把握機會或者冒險而不是通過仔細謹慎的計畫。 Careful and cautious planning is just as important as taking chances or risks. 1. Whatever goal we intend to accomplish, the first thing to do is planning. 2. Chance favors only the prepared minds.

3. Taking risks without any planning is nothing but rashness. 冒險和計畫
------------------------------

194. "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be competitive, but learning to be cooperative." 對於生活或者事業最好的準備不是學會競爭而是學會合作。  
Agree
1. Cooperation benefits every member of the team.
2. Every field of life requires people who are ready to cooperate with others. 3. Only through cooperation can we accomplish great tasks.
4. What is most needed today might be learning to compete in the spirit of cooperation. 競爭和合作
------------------------------

199. "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from individuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone." 真正有創意的想法並非來自於群體而是來自於個人。當群體試圖創新的時候,它的成員之間會被迫相互妥協,結果就是新想法趨於弱化而更接近于傳統。大部分新想法都是來自於獨立工作的個人。  

少數和多數之新創意
Original ideas may arise from individuals working alone as well as from groups of people working together. 1. It is true that individual thinkers or scientists working alone formulated many original ideas in history. 2. However, one should see that those great individuals actually benefited a lot from the work either of his contemporaries or of the people before their time. 3. While members of a group might force each other to compromise, it is also true that they may inspire and enlighten each other.

------------------------------
 
206. "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do." 人們現在太急於採取行動,實際上人們應該先停下來考慮一下他們這麼做可能導致的結果。  
It is always wise to think twice before you act.
1. More haste, less speed.
2. It might not be too difficult to persuade people to consider the possible impacts of their actions on themselves. 3. People should also think of the impacts of their actions on other people. 現在和將來之思維和行動

------------------------------
 
208. "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."  

人們的眼神、穿著和動作都揭示了他們的態度和興趣。你可以透過觀察一個社會中人們的外貌和舉止來認識該社會的理念和價值觀。

1. Turning first to the way people look and dress, certain aspects of the outward appearance of a culture’s people do inform us of their ideas, attitudes and values. 2. The habits, rituals and lifestyles of a culture often do provide accurate signals about its values. 3. Finally, the statement overlooks a crucial distinction between free societies and oppressed ones. 以小見大

------------------------------
 
209. "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view."  
進步最好是在人們各抒己見的討論中達成的。 In all realms of human endeavor, including the behavior and natural sciences as well as government and law, debate and disagreement form the foundation for progress.

1. Regarding the physical sciences, our scientific method is essentially a call for progress through opposition. 2. The nature-nurture debate will continue to serve as a catalyst for progress across the entire social spectrum. 3. History informs us of the chilling effect suppression of free discourse and debate can have on progress. 統一和分歧之進步

------------------------------
 
210. "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."  

大多數人選擇職業是基於很實際的考慮:經濟需求、找工作簡單、高薪水。很難得有人能從自己的潛質和興趣出發去自由的尋找一份特定的工作。 Although practical considerations often play a significant role in occupational trends, ultimately the driving forces behind people’s career decisions are individual interest and ability.

1. At first glance the balance of empirical evidence would seem to lend considerable credence to the speaker’s claim 2. However, upon further reflection it becomes clear that the relationship between career seekers and the supply of careers is an interdependent one, and therefore it is unfair to generalize about which one drives the other. 3. Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has to do with the myriad of ways in which people earn their living.

------------------------------
211. "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions." 任何一個決定,無論它來自政府、公司還是個人,都必須更多地考慮將來的情況而不是現在的情況。  

We should take into account both future and present conditions when we make a decision. 1. Any decision that does not take into account future conditions will become obsolete as time goes by. 2. We should know that fact that nobody can foretell exactly what will happen in the future. 3. Meanwhile, if we ignore the present conditions, our decision will not work at all. 當務之急和百年大計之決定

------------------------------
 
212. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."

只要值得,不擇手段達到目的是合理的。

Although the idealist way is to achieve the noblest goal through the noblest means, in reality we sometimes have to resort to low means in order to attain high goals. 1. Theoretically, the means taken should be consistent with the ends in view. 2. However, in order to restore peace and social order, individuals states or the international community has repeatedly used force in history. 3. We should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or government tend to plead a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and private interests.

------------------------------

216. "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."  
最重要的發現或是創造都是偶然的:在我們為一個問題尋求答案的時候,通常通過這個答案獲得另外的收穫。  
1. Turning first to discoveries, I agree that discovery often occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated question or a solution to an unrelated problem. 2. Many important discoveries are anticipated and sought out purposefully. 3. In marked contrast to discoveries, creations are by nature products of their creator’s purposeful designs.

------------------------------

225. "People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."  

人們總是在尋找相同點,即使是在非常不同的事物間也不例外,甚至有時候這樣做是無用乃至有害的。實際上,我們應該具體問題具體分析;我們應該儘量避免比較的傾向。

1. I agree with the speaker insofar as insisting on find similarities between things can often result in unfair, and sometimes harmful, comparison. 2. We should be especially careful when looking for similarities between people. 3. The speaker goes too far—by overlooking a fundamental, even philosophical, reason why we should always look for similarities between things.  分歧和統一

------------------------------
 
226. "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."  

人們總是錯誤地認為自己面臨的問題要比前人來得更複雜和更具有挑戰性。不斷增加的知識和經驗最終消除這種假像。  
現在和過去
 
1. The speaker overlooks certain societal problems unique to today’s world, which are complex and challenging in ways unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced. 2. However, humans face certain universal and timeless problems, which are neither more nor less complex and challenging for any generation than for preceding ones.

------------------------------
231. " 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."  

“做任何事都要適度”這句話是欠考慮的。更確切的說,我們應該“對大多數事情都要適度”,因為人類在很多領域中遇到的問題都需要全力以赴(解決),或者至少會從中獲益。

1. The virtues of moderation are undeniable. Moderation in all things affords us the time and energy to sample more of what life and world have to offer. In contrast, lack of moderation leads to a life out of balance. 2. Having acknowledged the wisdom of the old adage, I nevertheless agree that under some circumstances, and for some people, abandoning moderation might be well justified. 度的問題

------------------------------
 
234. "Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference."  
大多數人更喜歡約束和規則,而不是絕對自由的選擇權,儘管他們可能會否認這樣的傾向。  
1. History informs us that attempts to quell basic individuals freedoms—of expression, of opinion and belief, and to come and go as we please—invariably fail; however, reasonable constraints on freedom are needed to protect freedom—and to prevent a society from devolving into a state of anarchy where life is short and brutish. 2. Our preference for constraining our own freedom of choice is evident on societal level as well as on individual level.

自由和約束
------------------------------
 
235. "Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty--whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution--is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."  

大多數人被告知忠誠是一種美德。但是無論是對朋友、對學校、對單位還是對任何機構,忠誠時常都是弊大於利的。  
1. First consider the ways in which loyalty, if exercised in proper measure and direction, can be a positive force. 2. On the other hand, if misguided or overextended loyalty can amount to divisive and destructive force. 統一和分歧之忠誠

all too often時常
------------------------------
 
236. "Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things if they try hard enough is both misleading and potentially harmful." 鼓勵年輕人們相信只要他們努力就能夠完成偉大的事情,這樣做不僅僅是在誤導而且存在著潛在的危害性。  

Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things does more good than harm to them. 1. No one knows much he or she can achieve before trying.
2. Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things gives them confidence, which helps to bring out their potential. 3. Some of them may finally get frustrated because not every one can accomplish great things; however, every one will make progress through doing their best.

理想和現實之努力篇
------------------------------
 

 
238. "Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and energy."  
一致幾乎總是阻隔個人的創造力和活力。

1. Whether conformity stifles individual energy depends on the individual person involved. 2. Conformists find enhanced energy in certain corner of the business world as well, particularly in traditional service industries such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care. 3. In sharp contrast, other people are nonconformists by nature. For these people a highly structured, bureaucratic environment only serves to quell motivation and energy. 4. As for whether conformity stifles individual creativity, one need only look around at the individuals whom we consider highly creative to conclude that this is indeed the case. 統一和分歧

------------------------------
 
239. "Much of the information that people assume is 'factual' actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future."  

大多數人們認為是事實的資訊結果實際上都是不準確的。因此,任何據稱是事實的資訊都應該被質疑,因為它在將來很可能會被證明為是錯誤的。

1. On the one hand, we should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance. 2. On the other hand, in certain cases undue skepticism can be counterproductive and even harmful.

權威問題
------------------------------
 
240. "Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative feedback." 儘管對其他的個人或者群體的成就作積極的反應很容易,但是給與負面的回應往往更有價值。  
Encouragement proves more valuable than negative feedback.
1. People may not be as good as we tell them they are, but they will try harder thereafter. 2. Encouragement can make people happy and confident.
3. Admittedly, honest negative feedback may help people see their weakness.

良藥苦口利於病。
------------------------------
 

 第三類 教育
 
5. "A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer." 一個國家應該要求所有的學生在進入大學之前都學習由國家統一制定的課程,而不是允許由國家不同地區的學校去決定課程的安排。  

反對
1. On the one hand, a national curriculum contributes to preserving a unified national culture and national cohesion. 2. Furthermore, a general curriculum decided by authority rather than by local schools avoids limiting students to a narrow scope of knowledge too early. 3. On the other hand, in a multi-cultural society, different ethnic communities should be given the opportunity to preserve and promote their traditional cultures. 4. It’s beneficial to grant local schools the freedom to offer students some elective courses, which can help the school to build its unique culture charisma.

 -----------------
32. "A school or college should pay its teachers at the same rate in all disciplines, regardless of differences in salaries for related fields in the world outside of school. For example, entry-level teachers in mathematics and in the arts should receive the same pay, even if outside of school, math specialists earn a much higher salary on average than do specialists in the arts."  

不管在校園外不同領域之間薪水的差異有多大,學校對於所有學科老師的待遇應該是一視同仁的。比如,低年級的數學和美術老師應該享有同樣的收入,即便在校外,數學專家的收入一般是要比藝術家高得多。

1. The salary rate a teacher receives should be related not to his/ her discipline but his/her effort and contribution to the educational course. 2. Absolutely identical rate is unfair. Teachers of some disciplines have to assume more harsh work under worse circumstances. 3. If the differences in salaries for related fields in the world outside of school or college are dismissed, schools and colleges may have to face the loss of its staff.

 
孤立的校園
---------------------
34. "Instead of requiring students to take courses in a variety of disciplines--that is, courses ranging from the arts and the humanities to the physical and biological sciences--colleges and universities should allow students to enroll only in those courses that will help prepare them for jobs in their chosen fields. Such concentration is necessary in today's increasingly work-oriented society."  

與其要求學生們選修各種各樣的學科----從藝術和人文科學到物理和生物科學----大學還不如允許學生們僅僅去選擇那些有助於他們今後工作的學科。這種集中在當今這個工作至上的社會是必要的。

1. To begin with, schools should attach enough importance to courses that can help students prepare for jobs in their chosen fields. 2. However, work-oriented courses is never incompatible with other courses such as arts, humanities and the like, which also play an important role in one career success. 3. Inter-disciplinary study is crucial for the improvement of either discipline. 4. Though courses of a wide range of disciplines should be made compulsory, sufficient freedom should be granted to students.

 
學科
---------------------
39. "The intellectual benefits of attending a university or college are vastly overrated: most people could learn more by studying and reading on their own for four years than by pursuing a university or college degree."  

大學學習的好處被過分的高估了:大多數人如果通過研究和閱讀的方式自學四年的話,會比追求一個大學學位學到的更多。  

Disagree
1. Schools offer systematical curriculum, qualified staff, libraries, facilities and so on, which are not available to individuals who study on their own. 2. Studying with peers arouses competition and cooperation. Compulsory studies avoids laziness. 3. Qualified degrees help get a job offer more easily.

4. However, degree does not mean everything. It is just a symbol. Even if you have a college degree, you still have to work hard in order achieve career success. 大學和自學
--------------
50. "In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach."  

為了改善大學的教學品質,所有的教員都應該被要求花一定時間到學術領域以外去參加和他們所教科目相關的工作。  
Position:
Working experience in relevant professions enables college and university faculty to offer practical instruction to students.

1. First, faculty who are actively engaged in their fields come to class with fresh insights and contagious excitement about the issue at hand. 2. Secondly, by keeping abreast with the changing demands of work as a professional, professors can help students who are serious about pursuing a career in that field to make more informed career decisions. 3. Thirdly, experience in the field can help a professor ferret out cutting-edge and controversial issues—which might be appropriate subjects for research and publication. 4. However, the teachers in some disciplines such as mathematics, literature, history, philosophy, etc., may find it difficult to combine their teaching with relevant professional fields. ----------------

51. "Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student."  
教育只有被專門設計來滿足每一個學生個人需求和興趣的時候才是真正有效率的。

Student-oriented education is the most effective way to help students learn. 1. The traditional teacher-oriented education often neglects the individual needs and interests of each student, which proves counterproductive. 2. Student-oriented education can most effectively involve individual students in the learning process. 3. Nonetheless, winking at students’ unreasonable desires would only result in chaos in education. 少數和多數

-------------------
52. "Education encourages students to question and criticize, and therefore does little to promote social harmony."  
教育鼓勵學生們提出問題和進行批判,這樣做的結果無助於促進社會的和諧。  
Encouraging students to question and criticize does not necessarily harm social harmony. 1. Social harmony hinges on mutual understanding among members of the society, which is achieved through active communication rather than passive conformity. 2. The ability to challenge existing authorities and paradigms requires intensive training through education. 3. Encouraging students to question and criticize helps students not only to learn more productively but also become qualified citizens that will be able to actively participate in social affairs. 教育問題

--------------

53. "College and university education should be free for all students, fully financed by the government."  
大學教育應該對所有學生免費,由政府來全額資助。  
Agree
1. Investment in education is always a wise choice for a nation. 2. The amount of money needed by universities is only a small percent of a nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and will surely be compensated by the graduates in the future through the way of income taxation. 3. Proving all students with higher education puts them on equal footing with each other when they enter society—a precondition of equal opportunity for all members of society. 獎學金

----------------------
55. "Competition for high grades seriously limits the quality of learning at all levels of education."  
追求高分嚴重的限制了教育各階段的學習品質。  
Competition among students for higher grades does not necessarily have a negative impact on the quality of learning. 1. Admittedly, if education aims solely at cramming students for exams, the quality of learning will undoubtedly deteriorate. 2. However, examinations do help students review their lessons and master what they have learned. 3. Furthermore, the psychological pressure that competition exerts on students is not always harmful.

分數

--------------------------
67. "Colleges should require students to engage in public-service activities in order to assure that each student receives a balanced, well-rounded education."  
大學應該要求學生們參加公益活動,這也是為了保證每一個學生都能獲得平衡而全面的教育。  
Agree
1. Colleges today tend to isolate students from society.
2. However, we should realize that participating in some social activities may actually contribute to their academic work. 3. To train qualified citizens for society, colleges should arrange for public-service activities to increase student’s sense of social responsibility. 少數和多數之社會實踐和全面教育

-------------------------
78. "Schools should be required to teach the essential interconnectedness of all human beings and thus help eliminate wars, cultural clashes, and other forms of conflict."

學校應該被要求去教授存在于所有人之間的重要聯繫,這樣做可以消滅戰爭、文化衝突和其他形式的紛爭。

1. Human beings share many common interests and values, the awareness of which would contribute to intercultural understanding and cooperation. 2. Realizing the differences between different cultures would help different peoples of the world communicate with each other more effectively. 3. Considering the growing threat of cultural imperialism in this information age, it might be more urgent for schools to give more emphasis on cultural differences.  

分歧和統一
-------------------------
80. "All students should be required to take courses in the sciences, even if they have no interest in science."  
所有的學生都應該被要求去學習科學課程,即使他們對科學毫無興趣。  

Taking courses in the sciences benefits not only students in the sciences but also students in humanities. 1. The research methods in the sciences can be applied to the studies of humanities. 2. Students of humanities and social sciences may bring fresh and constructive perspectives and viewpoints to natural science classes. 3. Some knowledge of the sciences is a must for everyone living in an age in which science and technology play a dominant role. 現實和理想之學習與興趣

-------------------------
90. "College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than seek programs that promise entry into the job market."  
大學學生應該被鼓勵去學習他們感興趣的學科而不是那些容易找工作的學科。  
Agree
1. Today’s parents attach too much importance to the job prospects of their children’s education. 2. However, empirical evidence suggests that young people are more likely to succeed in a career that interests them. 現實和理想之興趣

-----------------------
94. "Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated."  

大學應該要求每一個學生在自己專業課外選修各種學科,因為獲得各種學科的知識才是獲得真正教育的最好途徑。  
Agree
1. True education amounts to far more than gaining the knowledge and ability to excel in one’s major course of study and in one’s professional career. 2. Becoming truly educated also requires sufficient mastery of one academic area to permit a student to contribute meaningfully to society later in life. 3. Nevertheless, the call for a broad educational experience as the path to becoming truly educated comes with one important caveat—in the pursuit of true education students must be careful not to become a dilettante. 必修課和選修課

 -----------------------
98. "Colleges and universities should offer more courses on popular music, film, advertising, and television because contemporary culture has much greater relevance for students than do arts and literature of the past."  

大學應該開設更多關於流行音樂、電影、廣告和電視的課程,因為當代文化比起過去的文學和藝術與學生們更加息息相關。  
Agree with concession
1. Popular culture is a mirror of society’s impulses and values. 2. Knowledge of popular films, music, and art enables a person to find common ground to relate to other people, which leads to better communication between different subcultures. 3. Nevertheless, emphasizing the study of popular culture at the expense of studying classical art and literature can carry harmful consequences for students, as well as for society. 過去和現在之流行課程

------------------------------
100. "The pressure to achieve high grades in school seriously limits the quality of learning. An educational environment without grades would promote more genuine intellectual development."  

在學校獲得高分的壓力嚴重得限制了學習的品質。一個沒有分數的教育環境將會促進真正的智力發展。  
Grade連續2次出現,這裏不是學歷、學位的意思,學歷、學位應該是degree。 教育之分數
 
The speaker fails to see the positive effects of the pressure exerted by exams. 1. Admittedly, exams might exert some negative impact on students. 2. However, competition for high grades among students could motivate students to work hard. Well-prepared exam questions could also help students review their lessons.

--------------------------------
102. "For better or worse, education is a process that involves revising the ideas, beliefs, and values people held in the past."  
不論好壞,教育是一個修正人們過去所持有的理念、信仰和價值觀的過程。  
Education is far more involved than just revising people’s old ideas, beliefs and values. 1. Education often inputs, rather than revise, ideas and values to people’s mind. 2. The ultimate purpose of education is to teach the young generation how to confront the challenges of the present. 除舊取新的過程

-----------------------------
104. "It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to perpetuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears."  
如果一個文化想要它認為好的理念永世長存而擯棄它厭惡的理念,主要是通過正規的教育。  
1. I agree with the speaker with respect to formal grade-school and even high-school education, yet the degree to which our grade schools and high schools emphasize indoctrination should not be overstated. 2. Although the speaker’s assertion has some merit when it comes to the education of young people, I find it erroneous when it comes to higher education. 3. The speaker also ignores other means by which our culture perpetuates ideas it favors and discredits ideas it fears. 教育問題

106. "All students should be required to take at least one course in ethics, even if taking the course means a decreased emphasis on academic subjects."  
所有的學生都應該被要求至少選修一門道德課,即使學這門課意味著會影響學術課程的學習。  
1. Nowadays, people tend to attach less and less importance to the inculcation of morality. 2. Knowledge of ethics provides students with a correct view of life and career. 3. The goal of education is to help students grow not only intellectually, but also ethically. 現實和道德

------------------------------
112. "Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions."  

一些教育體系強調學生邏輯推理思維能力的發展,但是那些教學生們探究自身情緒的教育對學生們才更有好處。  

While I concede that in certain fields students are well served by nurturing their emotions and feelings, in most academic disciplines it is by cultivating intellect rather than emotions that students master their discipline and, in turn, gain a capacity to contribute to the well-being of society.

1. I agree with the speaker insofar as undue emphasis on reason and logical thinking can have a chilling effect on the arts. 2. Aside from its utility in the arts, however, the exploration of emotions has little place in educational systems. Indeed, on a systemic scale undue emphasis on the exploration of our emotions can have deleterious societal consequences. Emotions invite irrationality in thought and action, the danger of which are all too evident in contemporary world history.

------------------------------
128. "It is often asserted that the purpose of education is to free the mind and the spirit. In reality, however, formal education tends to restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free."  

教育的目的據稱是要解放思想和精神。然而實際上,正規的教育是要遏制我們的思維和精神而不是解放他們。  
1. Some people might argue that the overwhelming curriculum of schools would restrain our mind and spirit. However, if deficient in knowledge, absolute free mind will lead to total simplicity and naivety. 2. Formal education plays a very important role in the process of freeing the mind and spirit. Basic knowledge, which can only be attained through formal education, is the prerequisite for freeing people’s mind and spirit.  

解放思想

------------------------------
130. "How children are socialized today determines the destiny of society. Unfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise children who can help bring about a better society."  
現在孩子的社會化程度決定了社會的命運。可惜的是,我們還沒有學會教孩子怎麼樣去建設一個更好的社會。

The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement at best. And the claim that we have not yet learned how to raise children who can better society is poorly supported by empirical evidence.

1. Unless a child is allowed sufficient opportunities for healthy interaction with peers, that child is likely to grow into an ineffectual, perhaps even an anti-social, adult. 2. However, socialization is only one factor influencing the extent to which an individual will ultimately contribute to a better society. 3. Turning to the second claim, if we define a “better” society as one characterized by greater tolerance of differing viewpoints and people who are different from ourselves, greater respect for individual rights, and greater cooperation across cultural and national boundaries, then the children of the most recent half-century are creating a better society. 下一代

----------------------------
132. "The university community consists of three different worlds----the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. Because each world operates on its own assumptions and has its own special habits of thinking, rarely is there meaningful interaction among the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences."  

大學包括了三個不同的領域----科學、人文學科以及社會學科。因為每一個領域都根據自己的前提運轉,每一個領域都有自己獨特的思維習慣,所以在自然科學、人文科學和社會科學之間幾乎是不存在有意義的交互的。  
Disagree
1. Admittedly, the university community regards the three different academic endeavors as separate realms. 2. Actually, the three fields are intrinsically interrelated to each other. 3. Combining the relevant methods used respectively in the three fields will be of great help to our study and learning. 學科之間的關係

------------------------------

134. "Students should be encouraged to realize that mental agility and rhetorical skill must be accompanied by sincerity and the true conviction of their own beliefs."  
學生們應該被鼓勵而意識到思維的敏捷和口齒的伶俐必須和真誠與堅持自己的信仰相伴隨存在。  
1. Our belief about what we are and what can be precisely determine what we will be. 2. However, today’s education gives too much stress to mental agility and rhetorical skills, which are skin-deep compared to sincerity and true conviction of beliefs. 現實與道德

153. "Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. They should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively."  
無論學生們學習什麼都應該帶著一定的疑問。學生們應該質疑老師教授的東西而不只是被動的接受。

1. Skepticism is perhaps most important in the physical science. Passive acceptance of prevailing principles quells innovation, invention and discovery. 2. The value of skepticism is not limited to the physical sciences, of course. (sociology, political science, law)  3. Even in the arts, students must challenge established styles and forms rather than learn to imitate them; otherwise, no genuinely new art would ever emerge. 4. Admittedly, undue skepticism might be counterproductive in educating young children. 教育問題之學而好問

------------------------------
154. "Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators."  
父母和社會都必須參與到地方的學校中。教育太重要了以至於不能把教育完全交給一群職業教育者。  
Educators, parents and communities can and should join efforts to create a healthy learning environment for children. A. First of all, we should never look down upon the key role that professional educators play in fostering the younger generation. B. Meanwhile, both parents and communities can make significant contribution to school education. C. Without a constructive family and community environment, it would be almost impossible for school education to fulfill its noble mission. 教育之合作

191. "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the personal lives of students and to training students to be productive workers." 教育應該平衡的一方面豐富學生的個人生活,一方面把學生培養成訓練有素的工作者。 In my view, preparing students for the mundane aspects of work should be secondary to providing a broader education that equips students with historical and cultural perspective, as well as thoughtful and principled personal value systems and priorities. 1. One reason why educators should emphasize personal enrichment over job preparation is that rote technical knowledge and skill do not help a student determine which goals in life are worthwhile and whether the means of attaining those goals are ethically or morally acceptable. 2. Another reason why educators should emphasize personal enrichment over job preparation is that specific knowledge and skills needed for jobs are changing more and more quickly. 3. A third reason why educators should emphasized personally enriching course work—particularly anthropology, sociology, history, and political philosophy—is that these courses help students understand, appreciate and respect other people and their viewpoints. 現實和理想

-----------------------------
 201. "The purpose of education should be to provide students with a value system, a standard, a set of ideas--not to prepare them for a specific job."  
教育的目的應該是給予學生一個價值體系,一個標準,一整套想法----而不是為一個具體工作培養他們。

1. By helping students develop a thoughtful, principled value system educators actually help prepare students for jobs. 2. Another reason for my viewpoint lies in the fact that technology-driven industries account for an ever-increasing portion of our jobs. 3. Besides helping students develop their own thoughtful value systems, educators should instill in students certain basic values upon which any democratic society depends; otherwise, our freedom to choose our own jobs and careers might not survive in the long term. 4. Admittedly, values and behavioral standards specific to certain religions are best left to parents and churches.

213. "Too much emphasis has been placed on the need for students to challenge the assertions of others. In fact, the ability to compromise and work with others--that is, the ability to achieve social harmony--should be a major goal in every school." 人們過於重視了學生們挑戰他人主張的要求。實際上,達成社會和諧的能力,比如容讓和協作能力,應該成為每一所學校的主要目標。  

Encouraging students to think critically does not necessarily conflict with our pursuit of social harmony. 1. Critical thinking is key to students both academically and politically. 2. It is necessary for students to criticize the views of each other in their studies, which does not necessarily lead to conflicts among them. 3. Compromising is harmful in academic pursuits.

--------------------------- 
214. "Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped."  

社會應該發現那些具有特殊天賦和能力的孩子,並且在年幼的時候就開始訓練他們以便於這些孩子最終可以在他們擅長的領域中出類拔萃。否則這些天才就可能會止步不前。  
1. At first blush the statement appears compelling. I agree with the statement insofar as any society that values its own future well-being must be attentive to its children’s talents. 2. Beyond this concession, however, I disagree with the statement because it seems to recommend that certain children receive special attention at the expense of other children—a recommendation that I find troubling.

---------------------------
222. "Learning for learning's sake is an outdated concept. Today, education must serve an ulterior purpose and be directed toward clear goals." 孤立的教育已經是過時的想法了。現在的教育應該作用于更高的目的並且由清晰的目標來指引。  

While education must serve clear purpose, “learning for learning’s sake” is not necessarily out-dated. 1. The primary purpose of education is to cultivate qualified citizens and builders of a democratic society. 2. Another purpose of education is to train creative workers who can fill in all the occupations of society. 3. The idea of “learning for learning’s sake” does not necessarily conflict with education’s pursuit of the above purposes. 反理想與現實之教育

-------------------------
223. "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with school or college." 教育主要是個人的私事,和中小學或者大學基本上沒什麼關係。  
Education is not a personal matter in a large sense, and it certainly has a lot to do with school or college. 1. It is not difficult to understand that education directly benefits the individual receiver of education. 2. Furthermore, the education of an individual concerns the interests of the whole society. 3. With the dramatic increase in knowledge today, it is impossible to educate oneself without the involvement of school or college. 少數和多數

-------------------------
228. "The best way to teach--whether as an educator, employer, or parent--is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones."  
無論是作為教育者、雇主或者是父母,教育最好的方法就是讚揚積極的行為而無視消極的行為。

The statement overlooks circumstances under which praise might be inappropriate, as well as ignoring the beneficial value of constructive criticism, and sometimes even punishment. 1. The recommendation that parents, teachers and employers praise positive actions is generally good advice. 2. While recommending praise for positive actions is fundamentally sound advice, this advice should carry with it certain caveats. 3. As for ignoring negative actions, I agree that minor peccadilloes can, and in many cases should, be overlooked. 4. At the same time, some measure of constructive criticism and critique, and sometimes even punishment, is appropriate.

讚揚和批評
------------------------
230. "College students--and people in general--prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions. Therefore, colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to offer students clear direction." 大學學生和普通大眾寧願聽從指示而不願意自己做決定。因此,大學應該盡可能為學生減少選擇以便於為學生們提供一個明確的方向。

1. As for the speaker’s threshold claim, I concede that under certain circumstances people prefer to take direction from others. 2. When it comes to particular tasks in which college professors are more experienced and knowledgeable, following their directions is to be preferred, for failing to do so can result in costly mistakes. 3. However, when it comes to decisions about major and minor fields of study, curriculum choices, and other broad decisions, for the most part students themselves—and not college administrators—should be the final decision-makers. 精英和大眾之選擇權

---------------------------
232. "The purpose of education should be to create an academic environment that is separate from the outside world. This kind of environment is ideal because it allows students to focus on important ideas without being held back by practical concerns." 教育的目的應該是要創造出一個隔離於外界的學術環境。這樣的環境最理想因為這樣可以使學生們不受功利的干擾而專注於重要的理念。  

It is near-sighted to isolate students from the outside world. 1. A common misconception about education is that the so-called “important ideas” students learn at schools have nothing to do with the practical world. 2. Actually, students’ knowledge of the outside world contributions to their academic studies. 3. Furthermore, the ultimate purpose of education is to train workers and citizens who can adapt themselves to and make contributions to the society outside the campus. 理想和現實

第四類 科技

7. "The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records."  
攝像機可以通過如此精確而有力的記錄手段來再現當代生活,因此它已經代替書面記錄成為了一種更重要的記錄手段。 Although I agree that a video provides a more objective and accurate record of an event’s spatial aspects, there is far more to document in life than what we see and hear. Thus the speaker overstates the comparative significance of video as a documentary tool. 1. For the purpose of documenting temporal, spatial events and experiences, I agree that a video record is usually more accurate and more convincing than a written record. 2. Nonetheless, for certain other purposes written records are more advantageous and more appropriate than video records. 3. Finally, a video record is of not use in documenting statistical or quantitative information. 記錄手段:現代攝像機和印刷術

------------------------------
30. "The primary goal of technological advancement should be to increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure time."  
技術進步的首要目標應該是提高人們的效率以便於每個人都享有更多的閒暇時光。  
Disagree:
1. The chief reason for my disagreement lies in the empirical proof: with technological advancement comes diminished leisure time. 2. Meanwhile, the suggestion that technology’s chief goal should be to facilitate leisure is simply wrongheaded. There are far more vital concerns that technology can and should address. 技術進步之空閒時刻

------------------------------
66. "As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate."  
當人們變得越來越依賴技術解決問題的時候,人類獨立思考的能力將肯定會有所衰退。  
Technology is a double-edged sword that may either serve or harm human interests. 1. On the one hand, it is possible that people may become the slaves of technology. 2. On the other hand, technology may save people’s time and energy so that they could devote themselves to more creative and meaningful work. 3. Moreover, technology provides people with effective instruments for intellectual work. 技術進步之人和技術

------------------------------
69. "Government should place few, if any, restrictions on scientific research and development"  
政府應該少限制科學研究和發展。
 
Disagree
1. Without government funding, scientists would find it difficult to carry out large-scale projects. 2. Government can also organize scientists to solve the most urgent problems that concern society. 3. However, government should refrain from interfering with the freedom of scientific enquiry.

技術之政府限制
------------------------------
88. "Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics."  
技術不僅僅影響而且實際上是決定了社會傳統和道德規範。  
1. Technologies have radically changed the way we spend holidays. 2. The new ways of communication brought about by electronic technology have transformed the way we associate with each other in our daily lives. 3. However, we should not let technologies determine our ethics. 技術進步之社會影響

------------------------------
107. "Instant communication systems encourage people to form hasty opinions and give quick replies rather than take the time to develop thoughtful, well-reasoned points of view."  
即時通訊系統促使人們匆忙的做出判斷並很快的給出回答,而不是花時間去形成深思熟慮和理由充分的觀點。  

Instant communication systems tend to discourage thoughtful and well-reasoned points of view. 1. Instant communication systems usually require quick replies. 2. The pressure of time and space—a key feature of instant communication—forces people to form hasty opinions rather than thoughtful and well-reasoned points of view. 3. On the contrary, traditional ways of communication such as hand-written letters or face-to-face discussion are more likely to induce in-depth thinking. 技術進步之即時判斷

------------------------------
 
114. "Humanity has made little real progress over the past century or so. Technological innovations have taken place, but the overall condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of humanity."  

人文學科在過去的一百年左右止步不前。技術在不斷進步而人文學科的整體條件卻沒有改善。戰爭、暴力和貧困仍然困擾著我們。技術無法改變人文學科的處境。  
Although I agree that technology cannot ultimately prevent us from harming one another, the statement fails to account for the significant positive impact that the modern industrial and computer revolutions have had on the quality life—at least in the developed world.

1. I agree with the statement insofar as there is no technological solution to the enduring problems of war, poverty, and violence, for the reason that they stem from certain aspects of human nature—such as aggression and greed. 2. For every technological innovation helping to reduce human suffering is another that has served primarily to add it. 3. Notwithstanding technology’s limitations in preventing war, poverty, and violence, 20th Century technological innovation has enhanced the overall standard of living and comfort level of developed nations. 4. Of course, such progress has not come without costs.

技術進步之人文學科
------------------------------
 
115. "It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful measurement that we become aware of our progress. Without such tools, we have no reference points to indicate how far we have advanced or retreated."  

通過邏輯和精確仔細的衡量,我們得以明白自己的進步。如果沒有這些手段,我們就沒有參考來瞭解我們進步了多少或者退步了多少。

In certain endeavors, quantitative measurements and logical analysis of data are essential for us to determine whether and to what extent we are progressing or regressing. However, in other realms, objective data provides little guidance for determining progress.

1. As for monitoring individual progress, the extent to which careful measurement and logical analysis of data are required depends on the specific endeavor. In the area of personal finance, objective measurements are critical. 2. In the area of one’s physical well-being, however, quantitative measurement might be useful yet insufficient. 3. On a societal level, as on a personal level, the extent to which careful measurement and logic are needed to determine progress also depends on the endeavor. In macroeconomics, as in personal finance, objective measurements are critical. 4. In contrast, socio-political progress is less susceptible to objective measurement.

技術進步之人類進步
------------------------------
119. "When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?"  

當研究的重點被置於科學、教育或者其他領域中時,最重要的問題就是要考慮如果研究獲得成功會有多少人的生活得以改善。

I agree insofar as areas of research certain to result in immediate and significant benefits for society should continue to be a priority. Yet, strictly followed, the speaker’s recommendation would have a harmful chilling effect on research and new knowledge.

1. Admittedly, scientific research whose societal benefits are immediate, predictable, and profound should continue to be a high priority. 2. However, this is not to say that research whose benefits are less immediate or clear should be given lower priority. First of all, if we strictly follow the speaker’s suggestion, who would decide which areas of research are more worthwhile than others? Researchers cannot be left to decide. 3. Secondly, to compel all researchers to focus only on certain areas would be to force many to waste their true talents. 4. Thirdly, it is difficult to predict which research avenues will ultimately lead to the greatest contributions to society. 技術進步之改善人民生活

------------------------------
124. "Instant foods, instant communication, faster transportation-all of these recent developments are designed to save time. Ironically, though, instead of making more leisure time available, these developments have contributed to a pace of human affairs that is more rushed and more frantic than ever before."  

方便食品、即時通訊、更快捷的交通----所有這些最新的發展都是為了節省時間。具有諷刺意味的是,這樣的發展並沒有帶來更過的休閒時間,反而使人們的生活節奏前所未有的匆忙和混亂。

While I agree that leisure time is declining as a result of efficiencies which technology has brought about, whether the irony to which the speaker refers is real or imagined depends on what one considers to be the chief aim of technology.

1. Few would disagree that technology has enhanced the speed and efficiency with which we travel, prepare our food, plan and coordinate projects, and communicate with one another. 2. What explains the irony—this decline in leisure despite increase in efficiency that new technologies have brought about? I agree that technology itself is the culprit. We use the additional free time that technology affords us not for leisure but rather for work. 3. Yet there are far more vital concerns which technology seeks to address; therefore, the above-mentioned irony does not seem so ironic after all. 技術進步之生活節奏

------------------------------
129. "Technology is a necessary but not always a positive force in modern life."  
技術對於現代生活是不可或缺的,但並不總是發揮積極的作用。

Agree
1. Undoubtedly, technology is the prerequisite for modern society. 2. Admittedly, some people use technology for negative or even evil purposes. 3. In that case, it is humanity rather than technology itself that should be the culprit. ------------------------------

135. "While most of the environmental problems we face result from the use of technology, society must depend upon technology to find solutions to these problems." 雖然我們面臨的大多數環境問題都是因為技術的使用,但是社會必須依靠技術來尋求解決的辦法。  

Depending upon technology to tackle environmental problems is an important but not sufficient solution. 1. The use of technology should be largely responsible for the environmental problems. 2. It is true that technology will help us solve many environmental problems. 3. However, if human beings do not change their attitude toward nature, technology alone will not be able to save us. 技術對人類的影響之環保

------------------------------
150. "Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete."  

由於電視和全球範圍內的電腦網路,人們現在可以熟悉很多以前從未涉足過的地方。其結果就是使得旅遊變得過時了。 (旅遊將會被淘汰)

I agree that these technologies might eventually serve to reduce travel for certain purposes other than tourism. However, I strongly disagree that tourism will become obsolete, or that it will even decline, as a result.

1. As for the claim that television will render tourism obsolete, we already have sufficient empirical evidence that this will simply not happen. 2. It is somewhat more tempting to accept the speaker’s further claim that computer connectivity will render tourism obsolete. 3. Moreover, in my view tourism will continue to thrive for the same reason that people still go out for dinner or to the movies: we all need to “get away” from our familiar routines and surroundings from time to time. 4. In fact, computer connectivity might actually provide a boon for tourism. 5. Admittedly, travel for purposes other than tourism might eventually decline, as the business world becomes increasingly dependent on Internet. 技術進步對人類社會的影響之旅遊

 
obsolete: 過時的,廢棄的
------------------------------

151. "High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication."  
高速電子通訊媒體,例如電子郵件和電視,在逐漸地抑制有意義的和有思想性的交流。  
Agree with concession
Although ample empirical evidence suggests so with respect to television, the answer is far less clear when it comes to communication via computers.

1. Few would argue that since its inception broadcast television has greatly enhanced communication to the masses. 2. Media such as email and the Web are interactive by design, yet email is often used to avoid face-to-face encounters, and in practice is used as a means of distributing quick memos. 3. With respect to Web-based communication, the myriad of educational sites, interactive and otherwise, is strong evidence that the Web tends to enhance, rather than prevent, meaningful communication. 技術進步對人類社會的影響之交流

------------------------------
155. "Contemporary society offers so many ways of learning that reading books is no longer very important."  
當代社會提供了如此之多的學習手段以至於讀書已經變得不再那麼重要了。  
1. Books provide us knowledge, especially theoretical one.
2. Admittedly, we can learn a lot from others via the advanced means of communication, but this method has its limitations. 3. Some might argue that they can acquire the correspondent knowledge through Internet. The complete knowledge of one area is indeed available on the Internet; however, such publication of knowledge is called “e-book”—another form of book. 技術進步對人類社會的影響之閱讀

------------------------------
159. "The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds."  
人類的智慧將總是高於機器,因為機器只是人類智慧的工具。  
1. The statement is clearly accurate insofar as machines are tools of human minds. 2. As for the statement’s second claim, in certain respects machines are superior. 3. Up till now, the notion of human-made machine that develop the ability to think on their own, and to develop so-called “emotional intelligence”, has been pure fiction. 技術進步對人類社會的影響(類似於影響和決定人類傳統) ------------------------------

166. "Over the past century, the most significant contribution of technology has been to make people's lives more comfortable."  
在上個世紀,技術最有意義的貢獻就是使得人們的生活越來越舒適了。  
1. Everybody benefits from the contribution of the technology to facilitate his or her private lives and works. 2. Many preeminent innovations of technology over the past century have greatly improved the development of society and industry. 3. Admittedly, with the development of technology, some problems arises---- green house effect, nuclear threats, environmental pollutions, etc. However, such drawbacks of technology do not surpass the benefit it brings about. 技術進步對人類的影響

------------------------------
196. "Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or damage the quality of life."  
技術解決了問題,但是帶來了更多的問題,並且可能會威脅或損害生活品質。 While mechanical automation may have diminished our quality of life on balance, digital automation is doing more to improve life than to undermine its quality. 1. Admittedly, mechanical automation spawned entire industries, creating jobs, stimulating economic growth, and supplying a plethora of innovative conveniences. Nevertheless, the sociological and environmental price of such progress may have outweighed its benefits. 2. In certain aspects, digital technology tends to diminish our quality of life and create its own legion of human slaves. 3. On the other hand, by relegating repetitive tasks to computers, digital technology has spawned great advances in medicine and physics, helping us to better understand the world, to enhance our health, and to prolong our lives. 技術對人類社會的影響

------------------------------
219. "Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to compete with--much less contribute to--the quantity of information that is now available electronically." 既然電腦技術已經使人們及時接觸大量真實資訊成為可能,那麼人們就不太可能像以前那樣去深刻地或者創造性地思考了。對於通過電子手段獲得的信息量,人們已經感覺跟不上了,並且個人的作用已經減弱了。  

The availability of large amounts of factual information through the Internet does not necessarily hinder people from thinking deeply or originally. 1. No one would doubt that computer technology has led us into an age of information, putting us on an unprecedented advantageous position to access and use the boundless sea of information. 2. And there is no denying the possibility that we suffer from a new problem—information overload. 3. However, we should be clear that the task of human beings today is not to compete with computer technology in terms of the quantity of information we can produce 4. We should and we can make full use of the large amounts of information available electronically for research purposes and make original contributions.

全球化之資訊
------------------------------
233. "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning."  

儘管諸如電視、電腦和互聯網這樣的發明似乎給學校教育提供了進步的手段,但是所有這些技術往往也是在偏離真正的學習。 Computer Assisted Instruction has several advantages over traditional ways of teaching. 1. First of all, the computer has the ability to accommodate individual differences in learning speed. 2. In addition, the computer provides students with a stress-free learning environment. 3. A third advantage of CAI is that the computer can give a student immediate feedback. 4. The possibility of students being distracted from learning by new teaching equipment should not be used as an excuse to prevent teachers and students from benefiting from technological progress.  

技術對人類的影響之多媒體教育
------------------------------

237. "Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of original works such as paintings and historical documents available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology is that it will enable anyone--not just scholars--to conduct in-depth research without having access to the original works." 電腦和影像技術可以讓普通人接觸到像繪畫和歷史文獻這樣的原始資料的複製品。這項新技術最大的好處就是可以讓任何人,不僅僅是學者們,即使無法接觸到這些原始資料也一樣可以進行深入的研究。

The speaker exaggerates the power of computers and video technology in academic research. 1. Undoubtedly, the new technology can make paintings and historical documents available to more people, thus contributing to academic research. 2. However, not anyone can conduct in-depth research once research sources are available. 3. Besides, the facsimiles made by the new technology—no matter how accurate they are—can never replace the original works.  

精英和大眾之複製技術與原始資料
------------------------------

第五類 學習

1. "We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own; disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning." 通常,我們從與我們意見相同的人身上學到的要比從那些與我們意見相悖的人身上學的東西要多得多;(因為)意見不統一會帶來壓力並且阻礙學習。 1. Admittedly, under some circumstances disagreement with others can be counterproductive to learning. 2. Disagreement can also inhibit learning when two opponents disagree on fundamental assumptions needed for meaningful discourse and debate. 3. However, it is through debate that human knowledge advances whether at the personal, community or global level. ---------------

4. "No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study." 在任何一個研究領域當中,除非有該領域之外的人引進他們的知識和經驗,否則該領域就很難獲得巨大的發展。  
Outsider: a person does not belong to a particular group
 
There is no doubt that different disciplines are interrelated and that the knowledge of one field can shed light on the studies of other fields.

1. Knowledge of statistics was introduced into the fields of sociology and history, contributing to the researchers in those fields. 2. Literary critics borrow new ideas formulated by philosophers to further their studies. 3. When biology and chemistry met, biochemistry came into being.

閉門造車,旁觀者清
------------------------------
14. "It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology and other types of imaginative literature."  
每個人都應該閱讀詩歌、小說、神話以及各種各樣的想像文學。 Reading imaginative literature is beneficial for everyone.
1. Imagination is a precondition of any creative work.
2. Reading imaginative literature enriches one’s imagination. 3. Reading imaginative literature is also a pleasant way of relaxation.

想像文學與人
------------------------------
28. "Students should memorize facts only after they have studied the ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts. Students who have learned only facts have learned very little."  

學生們在記憶知識的時候應該先學習有助於解釋那些知識的理念、潮流和概念。僅僅死學知識的學生是學不到什麼東西的。  
1. If we learn only facts, we learn very little.
2. Postponing the memorization of facts until after one learns ideas and concepts holds certain advantages. 3. Conceding that students must learn ideas and concepts, as well as facts relating to them, in order to learning anything meaningful, I nevertheless disagree that the former should always precede the latter. 4. The speaker misunderstands the process by which we learn ideas and concepts, and by which we develop new ones. 5. Strict adherence to the speaker’s advice would surely lead to ill-conceived ideas, concepts and theories. 局部和整體之觸類旁通

------------------------------
 
42. "Because learning is not a solitary activity but one that requires collaboration among people, students of all ages will benefit academically if they work frequently in groups."  
由於學習不是一種孤立的行為而是需要人們之間合作的,所以各種年齡的學生如果經常小組學習的話就會在學術上受益匪淺。   Agree
1. Younger students may learn patience, tact, experience and deliberation from elder ones. 2. Senior students may absorb inspiration, vigor, ambition, and enthusiasm from junior ones. 3. Teamwork spirit is crucial for student’s career success. 少數和多數之學習小組

------------------------------
57. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is much richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience."  
通過書本獲得的知識要比通過直接體驗獲得的知識要更加豐富和廣泛。  
The statement oversimplifies the issue of learning.
1. The knowledge to be gained from books is important in that it transcends the limitation of personal experience both in time and in space. 2. However, there is high likelihood that book knowledge may not apply to the particular situation one faces here and now. 3. Therefore, it is always necessary to test the knowledge gained from books through practice. 直接經驗和間接經驗

------------------------------
59. "Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of copying others, people should learn to think and act independently and thus make the choices that are best for them."  
人們在榜樣上投入了太多的注意力。與其模仿別人,還不如學習獨立思考和做出最適合自己的選擇。   Disagree
1. Children need role models to help them develop their personality and character. 2. In addition, role models in the workplace contribute to the forming and maintaining of corporate culture. 3. Finally, independent thinking and action does not necessarily ensure the best choices.

模式化和獨立思考
------------------------------
73. "In most professions and academic fields, imagination is more important than knowledge."  
在大多數職業和學術領域中,想像力要比知識更加重要。  
Without imagination, one can hardly succeed in any field.
1. Imagination in business is the ability to perceive opportunity. 2. In science, imagination leads to invention and discoveries. 3. Without imagination, there would be no art.
想像力和知識
------------------------------
92. "In any academic area or professional field, it is just as important to recognize the limits of our knowledge and understanding as it is to acquire new facts and information."  
在任何學術或者職業領域中,承認我們知識和理解的不足同獲取新的知識同等重要。

1. On the one hand, the speaker’s assertion accords with the everyday experience of working professionals. 2. Moreover, additional knowledge we gain by collecting more information often diminishes—sometimes to the point where marginal gains turn to marginal losses. 3. On the other hand, the speaker’s assertion seems self-contradictory, for how can we know the limits of our knowledge until we’ve thoroughly tested those limits through exhaustive empirical observation—that is, by acquiring facts and information.

自我批評
------------------------------
 
117. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience."  
從書本中獲得的知識要比通過直接經驗獲得的知識內容更加豐富,範圍更加廣闊。  
Knowledge gained from books is broader but not necessarily richer than what can be learned from direct experience. 1. Systematically arranged, knowledge gained from books, the results of countless other people’s direct experiences, is broader than what one can learn from his or her direct experience. 2. However, direct experience, though limited by time and space, provides on with an opportunity to gain a more accurate and vivid understanding of a matter. 3. The best way to learn is to put what we gain from books into practice. 直接經驗和間接經驗

------------------------------
122. "We owe almost all our knowledge not to people who have agreed, but to people who have disagreed."  
我們所掌握的知識差不多都是源於持不同意見者而非意見相同者。  

統一和分歧之知識
------------------------------
138. "Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress."  
失敗是成功之母
Agree
1. To begin with, the contention accords with our everyday experience as humans from early childhood through adulthood. 2. This same principle also applies on a societal level. Consider, however, how we progress in our scientific knowledge. 3. The value of trial-and-error is not limited to the sciences. In government and politics, progress usually comes about through dissension and challenge—that is, when people point out the mistake of those in power. ------------------------------

164. "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than experience. People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible and thus can approach a task without constraints of established habits and attitudes."  

有時候想像力是比經驗更有價值的財富。缺少經驗的人得以自由的想像任何可能性,並且由此可以達成一個目標而不受既定習慣和態度的限制。  
I fundamentally agree with the speaker’s assertion; however, as the speaker implies, it is impossible not to overstate the comparative value of imagination.

1. One need only observe young children as they go about their daily lives to appreciate the role that pure imagination can play as an aid to accomplishing tasks. 2. The speaker’s contention also finds ample empirical support in certain forms of artistic accomplishment and scientific invention. 3. Of course, there are many notable exceptions to the rule that imagination unfettered by experience breeds remarkable insights and accomplishments. 4. On the other hand, it is important not to take this assertion about artistic and scientific accomplishment too far. 想像力和經驗

------------------------------
177. "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."  
對於一門學科的研究會改變我們對世界的看法。在學習這門學科之後,我們看到的世界一如既往,但是我們本身的角度和眼光已然不同。

1. Through the earnest pursuit of knowledge—particularly in history and literature—we reveal to ourselves the flaws and foibles of other humans whose lives we study and read about. 2. Through education we begin to see flaws not only in people but also in ideologies that we had previously embraced on pure faith. 3. While education helps us see the flawed nature of our previously cherished ideas, paradoxically it also helps us see ideas we previously rejected out of hand in a different light—as having some merit after all. 4. Education in the arts alters forever the way we perceive the aesthetic world around us.

知識對於人類的影響
------------------------------
179. "What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but certainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open--but most people prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling truth about anything."  

大多人真正想要得到的不是知識而是結論。獲得真正的知識需要冒險和不停歇的思考----但是大多數人更願意獲得確定的答案而不是去學習複雜而不確定的真理。  
1. Only after we have gained real knowledge can we be competent for a better comprehension of the world. 2. People’s unremitting pursuit of knowledge is not for the sake of knowledge, but largely for the sake of their settled life goals and acquiring a degree of certainty about their goals. 獨立思考

------------------------------

 
180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."  
現代社會的很多問題是法律和立法系統無法解決的,因為道德行為是無法用法律約束的。 I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems. 4. Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our personal lives—to control what we do with and to ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society. 5. Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the greater good of society, because on balance their costs far outweigh their benefits. 6. In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律

------------------------------
181. "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things."  

學生和學者們在詮釋學術研究物件時使用的方法更多的是一種個性化(因人而異)而非一種培訓(模式化)。不同的詮釋來自於具有不同個性的人在看待相同的目標、事實、資料或者事件的時候以及他們在看待不同事情的時候。

Disagree: The key factor in their interpretation is a person’s training and educational background, rather than personality. 1. Assuming that by personality the speaker embraces such personal attributes as individual temperament, disposition and general mood, and outlook, it seems to me that personality has little bearing on how students and scholars interpret the materials with which they work. 2. In sharp contrast, one’s educational background and training can serve as a strong influence on how one interprets historical events involving human affairs, statistical data, and especially art. 3. Educational training and background also affects how students and scholars interpret seemingly objective statistical data. 4. Finally, when it comes to how students and scholars interpret art, training and educational background play an especially significant role. 個體和整體之學術方法論

------------------------------
183. "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and more mysterious."  
隨著我們獲得越來越多的知識,事情並沒有變的更加透徹,相反是變的更複雜更神秘。  
As our knowledge of the world accumulates, we arrive at a higher stage of civilization although the world may appear more complex and more mysterious. 1. The world in the eyes of primitive tribes was much simpler and thus more “comprehensible” in a sense and certainly more backward. 2. If we compare the known part of the world to the space within a circle, the unknown part of the world around the circle grows as the circle of our knowledge expands. 3. There is no need to feel frustrated about the increasingly more complex and more mysterious world that we confront because our knowledge in total keeps growing and correspondingly we are becoming better equipped to cope with the problems that emerge. ------------------------------

200. "The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is usually acquired through solitude, rather than through interaction with others."  
Elusive: Abstruse, hard to comprehend
Self-knowledge: knowledge or understandings of ones own capabilities, character, feelings, or motivations Solitude: alone, seclusion
最艱深難懂的學問都是自知之明的,這些學問通常都是獨立發展起來的而不是通過和其他人的交流。  
Both solitude and interaction with others contributes to self-knowledge. 1. To lead a happy life, the first thing is to know ourselves. “An unexamined life is not worth living.” 2. One way to know ourselves is to examine ourselves alone.

3. However, interaction with others can also help us see more clearly who we are. 少數和多數之自知之明的學問

204. "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all." 我們通過直接經驗來學習,如果沒有通過體驗來接受一個理論就等於根本沒學。  
Disagree
1. Even though experience is a most lively and vivid way that we learn things, it is by no means the only way. 2. Admittedly, by putting a theory into practice, we can either improve it or prove its truth. 3. However, there is no need for us to experience every theory before accepting and benefiting from it. 直接經驗和間接經驗

------------------------------
217. "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn what contributions remain to be made." 為了創作出成功的原創著作,學者和科學家們必須研究別人的著作以瞭解這些著作仍然保持著哪些貢獻。  

Naturally, to make new contributions in any field of study, scholars and scientists should first master the existing work done by their fellow scholars and scientists. 1. No one can produce any original work without first assimilating the contributions of former generations in his or her field. 2. The defects of the work of other scholars and scientists are where we can possibly make our contributions. 3. In a large sense, what is called “original” work is usually but an improvement on the work done by previous scholars and scientist. 他山之石可以攻玉,科學是承前繼後的過程

-----------------------------
229. "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop a sense of the whole." 學習一門新學科或者新技術的最好方法是深入的學習某一個小的部分或者細節,而不是一開始就試圖去從整體來把握。

To learn a new subject, one should start by developing a sense of the whole rather than focusing on segments or details. 1. A sense of the whole subject enables us to identify the specific areas where we can make original  contributions. 2. A sense of the whole subject provides necessary background knowledge for any in-depth exploration into particular areas of that subject. 3. Studying small segments or details in great depth would in turn contribute to our understanding of the whole subject. 整體和局部的關係

------------------------------

第六類 政治

8. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public."  
對於政治領導者來說,向人民大眾隱瞞資訊通常是必要的,甚至有益的。

Agree
1. In order to gain the opportunity for effective public leadership, a would-be leader must first gain and maintain political power. In the game of politics, complete forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and naiveté, neither of which earn a politician respect among his or her opponents. 2. Fully disclosing to the public certain types of information would threaten public safety and perhaps even national security. 3. Nevertheless, legitimate political leadership indeed requires forthrightness with the citizenry as to the leader’s motives and agenda. 少數和多數的關係之true lies, the truth is out there. ------------------------------

 
24. "People in positions of power are most effective when they exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power."  
當掌握權力的人們試圖小心而節制的使用權力時,他們是最有效率的。  

1. People without caution and restraint tend to abuse the power granted to them. 2. Caution and restraint help people have better understanding and make better use of the power. 3. Leaders should not be tied up by too much caution and restraint. 過猶不及

------------------------------
43. "To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards."  
一個公僕如果想成為一位傑出的領導者就必須保持最高的倫理和道德標準。  
1. In the business realm, successful leadership is generally defined as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners. 2. In the political realm the issue is no less complex. Definition of successful political leadership and of ethical or moral leadership are tied up in the means a leader uses to wield his or her power and to obtain that power in the first place. 3. Personal morality is unrelated to effective political leadership. However, public morality and successful leadership are more closely connected. 政治家題目

------------------------------
44. "Government should not fund any scientific research whose consequences, either medical or ethical, are unclear."  
政府不應該資助任何後果不明的科學研究,無論是醫學方面還是倫理方面的。   Disagree
1. Financial support is to the uncertain scientific research what steam is to locomotive. 2. The consequences of uncertain researches may turn out to be as substantial as those with clear perspectives. 3. Admittedly, there are some dangers or wastes when the result of a scientific research is unclear. 政府和科研

------------------------------
45. "Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carrying out the will of the people whom they serve."  
政府官員應該依靠自己的判斷而不是不管三七二十一的遵從人民的意願。  
Disagree
1. Admittedly, it is hard to get a good rapport of all the people. 2. However, in a democratic society, government is elected by the people, and therefore should take the responsibility to serve for the people and realize their will. 3. Without the support of the people, government is bound to perish. 少數和多數,政府

------------------------------
56. "Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future."  
政府應該把更多的注意力放在解決當務之急,而不是試圖解決將來預期的問題上。  
Whether solving the immediate problems of today is more important than solving the anticipated problems of the future depends on the nature of the problems to be solved. 1. To win the favor of the general public, governments throughout the world tend to focus on solving the immediate problems of today. 2. However, a government’s failing to prepare for future challenges will cause disasters to its country in the long run. 3. Furthermore, a government should always take into consideration the possible future effects of the actions it takes today. 時間之當務之急和百年大計

------------------------------
79. "Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts, who are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public."  

主要的決策權應該全部交給政治家和其他的政府專家,他們更加見多識廣並且比一般的老百姓具有更好的判斷能力和洞察力。  
The title statement goes against the basic tenets of modern democracy. 1. In some cases, politicians and other government experts might be more informed and have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public. 2. However, there is no guarantee that the politicians and experts would always put the interest of the public before their own selfish interests. 3. Furthermore, empirical evidence also indicates that politicians and government experts do make grave mistakes that harm the interests of the public.

少數和多數之決策權
------------------------------
83. "Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely remote and thus accessible to only a few people."  
政府應該保留國家領土中公共擁有的荒涼地區,即使這些地區往往人跡罕至。  
When our environment is under growing threat from human civilization, government should take action to preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state. 1. Even a few people could cause serious damage to a remote wilderness area. 2. The destruction of even a remote wildness area could result in unforeseeable effects on the larger environment. 3. Without government’s protection, even the remotest wildness area will finally disappear. 政府之領土

------------------------------
85. "Government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the arts."  
政府資助藝術會威脅到藝術的完整性。
 
In spite of the harm that government funding might do to the integrity of the arts, government support is still necessary for the flourishing of the arts. 1. Admittedly, government funding might directly or indirectly influence artists’ decisions and choices. 2. However, history has demonstrated that government support could also contribute to the prosperity of arts. 3. Furthermore, when money has come to dominate contemporary society, it is all the more imperative for government to fund arts. 政府之藝術

------------------------------
97. "It is unfortunate but true that political decisions and activities affect all aspects of people's lives."  
儘管很不幸,但是這卻是真實存在的事實,政治決策和活動影響著人們生活的方方面面。  

1. Throughout the civilization history of humanity, politicians have long been in control of the affairs of society. 2. Actually, as the society becomes more and more commercialized, politics is playing a more important role in influencing various aspects of people’s lives. 3. The influence from politicians are not necessarily an unfortunate thing. 政治和生活

------------------------------

 
105. "The true strength of a country is best demonstrated by the willingness of its government to tolerate challenges from it's own citizens."  
一個國家真正的力量可以最好體現在他的政府願意容忍來自于自己國民的挑戰。  
In the long run, political tolerance adds to the strength of a country. 1. Democratic governments tend to be more tolerant than authoritarian ones. 2. A government that tolerates challenges from its citizens has more opportunity to improve its performance. 3. The real strength of a country lies in the dynamic and interactive relationship between the government and its people. 精英和大眾之開明政府

------------------------------
 
108. "In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings-trials, debates, meetings, etcthat are televised, the more society will benefit."  

在很多國家中,現在通過電視來觀看政府的運作已經成為可能。觀察這些過程有助於人們瞭解那些影響他們生活的決策。可以供轉播的政府運作(審判、辯論、會議等等)越多,對社會的好處就越多。  

1. On the one hand, access to government proceedings via television carries several significant benefits. First, videotapes are valuable supplements to conventional means of record keeping. Secondly, this sort of exposure provides the viewer a valuable sense of perspective, an appreciation for other forms of government, and so forth. Thirdly, in high schools and universities, television proceedings can be useful curriculum supplements for students of government, public policy, and even public speaking. 2. On the other hand, people cannot ignore the risks imposed by more and more televised government proceedings. Watching televised proceedings as a substitute for active participation in the political process can, on a mass scale, undermine the democratic process by way of its chilling effect on participation. 政府和大眾之電子政府

------------------------------

123. "It is possible to identify a person's politics within a very short time of meeting him or her. Everything about people-their clothes, their friends, the way they talk, what they eat-reflects their political beliefs."  

通過和一個人短時間的接觸來瞭解它的政治信仰是有可能的。和人們有關的一切--人們穿什麼樣的衣服、結交什麼樣的朋友、如何說話、吃什麼東西--都能夠反映出他們的政治信仰。  
A person’s words and behavior could directly reflect his or her political beliefs. 1. What one wears and eats indicates the way of life he or she advocates. 2. We can also identify a person’s ideals, qualities and values from the type of friends he or she associates with. “Birds of a feather flock together.” 3. Of course, it is also necessary to watch a person’s deeds if we want to know for sure what he or she truly believes in. 政治是無處不在的

------------------------------

167. "It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician."  
對於一個英明的政治領導者來說,總是坦白是不可能的。徹底的誠實對於一個政治家來說是無用的美德。  
In order to evaluate this contention it is necessary to examine the nature of politics, and to distinguish between short-term and long-term effectiveness. 1. On the one hand are three compelling arguments that political leader must sometimes be less than truthful in order to be effective in that leadership. The first argument lies in the fact that politics is a game played among politicians—and that to succeed in the game one must use the tools that are part and parcel of it. 2. Secondly, it is crucial to distinguish between misrepresentations of fact—in other words, lies—and mere political rhetoric. 3. Thirdly, politics is a business born not only of idealism but also of pragmatism; after all, in order to be effective a politician must gain and hold onto political power, which means winning election. 4. On the other hand, although in the short term being less-than-truthful with the public might serve a political leader’s interest in preserving power, would-be political leaders who lack requisite integrity ultimately forfeit their leadership.

領導者問題

--------------
169. "Those who treat politics and morality as though they were separate realms fail to understand either the one or the other."  Agree:
1. It is wrong-headed to equate moral behavior in politics with the simple notions of honesty and putting the other fellow’s needs ahead of one’s own—or other ways which we typically measure the morality of an individual’s private behavior. 2. In order to gain the opportunity for moral leadership politicians must engage in certain compromises along the way. 3. Successful political leadership, if it is to endure, ultimately requires a certain measure of public morality—that is serving the society with its best interests as the leader’s overriding concern. 那些把政治和道德看成是兩碼事的人是既不懂政治也不懂道德的。

政治和道德的關係

------------------------------

195. "The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus."  
政治的目的不應該是追求一種理想,而是尋求共同點和合理的一致。  
Disagree:
1. Reasonable consensus and a political idea need not be mutually exclusive. 2. The speaker’s position flies in the face of human nature and the nature of politics. 3. A third problem with the speaker’s position is that it begs the question: What are the proper ideals for politicians? They have little to do with consensus, and everything to do with justice and fairness. 4. Finally, lacking idealism a political leader will tend to seek compromise and reasonable consensus for its own sake. 統一和分歧之政治

------------------------------
202. "Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise." 不同于偉大的思想家和藝術家,最傑出的政治領袖通常都必須為了妥協而屈從於大眾的意見並且放棄原則。  

For political leaders, practicality should take precedence over principles. 1. Great thinkers and great artists do not have to appeal to the opinions of the public. 2. However, for political leaders, winning the favor of the public is key to effective leadership. 3. In addition, political policies are often made based on the compromise of different interest groups and the dictates of the situation. 少數和多數之政治領袖

------------------------------
224. "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified."
審查很少能夠做到公正。
 
Censorship can contribute to the interests of the public.
1. It is true that government officials often use censorship to protect their vested interests. 2. What is also true is that the mass media tend to abuse their freedom of expression in order to maximize their commercial interests. 3. Government is responsible for preventing its people from potential harmful effects of the mass media. 抽象題目

------------------------------

第七類 文化

6. "The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth."  
瞭解當代文明最有效的途徑就是去分析當代年輕人的潮流。  
It is more or less true to say that contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth. 1. We live in an age when old people are marginalized in society. 2. What we call mass culture produced by the mass media is, as a matter of fact, a reflection of the trends among the youth. 3. There is urgent need for the younger generation and the older generation to fill the gap between them and to build a more balanced contemporary culture. 文明潮流和年輕人潮流的關係。

------------------------------
10. "Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated."  

政府必須要確保主要城市發展所需的財政支持,因為一個國家的文化傳統主要是在城市中得以保存和發展。  
Disagree
1. Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of government. 2. Secondly, subsidizing cultural traditions is not a necessary role of government. Philanthropy is alive and well today, and so government need not intervene to ensure that our cultural traditions are preserved and promoted. 3. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the speaker unfairly suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding ground and sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions. 城市和國家的關係之文化傳統

------------------
49. "Imaginative works such as novels, plays, films, fairy tales, and legends present a more accurate and meaningful picture of human experience than do factual accounts. Because the creators of fiction shape and focus reality rather than report on it literally, their creations have a more lasting significance."  

想像作品,比如小說、戲劇、電影、神話和傳奇要比真實的敍事作品更能精確而有意義的展現人類的經歷。因為虛構作品的作者們重點刻畫現實而不是通過文學手段報導現實,所以他們的創作具有更加深遠的意義。  
1. Admittedly, most fictional works rely on historical settings for plot, thematic, and character development. 2. Only imaginative works can bring an historical period alive—by way of creative tools such as imaginary point of view. 3. Only imaginative works can provide meaning to historical events—through the use of devices such as symbolism and metaphor. 4. Examples of important films underscore the point that creative accounts of the human experience hold more lasting significance than bare factual accounts.

想像作品
------------------------------
63. "To truly understand your own culture--no matter how you define it--requires personal knowledge of at least one other culture, one that is distinctly different from your own."  
為了真正理解你自己的文化----無論你如何地定義它----都至少需要瞭解另外一種文化,並且該文化與你自己的文化是截然不同的。  
Agree
1. Staying within one culture makes one take for granted everything that the culture provides. 2. Knowledge of another different culture provides one with an opportunity to compare alternative ways of life and make choices. 3. In an age of globalization, one should learn to tolerate cultural differences. 旁觀者清

------------------------------
147. "Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them."  
傳統和現代化是水火不容的。人們必須二者選一。

I agree that in certain cases the two are mutually exclusive. For the most part, however, modernization does not reject tradition; in fact, in many cases the former can and does embrace the latter. A. In the first place, oftentimes so-called “modernization” is actually an extension or new iteration of tradition, or a variation on it. This is especially true in language and in law. B. In other areas modernization departs from tradition in some respects, while embracing it in others. C. Admittedly, in certain instances, tradition must yield entirely to the utilitarian needs of modern life. This is true especially when it comes to architectural artifacts.

------------------------------
172. "Important truths begin as outrageous, or at least uncomfortable, attacks upon the accepted wisdom of the time."  
重要的真理一開始都是令人難以容忍的,或者至少是令人不快的,而且都是在反對當時的權威思想。

It is customary fate of new truth to begin as heresies.
1. Copernicus’ heliocentric theory in the 16th century was a direct attack upon the accepted wisdom of the time, a geocentric view of the universe postulated by Aristotle and Ptolemy. 2. When Darwin first declared that the wide variety of animal species was due to a process of development over many millennia, he challenged the traditional Christian belief and outraged the religious fundamentalists. 3. In former socialist countries, it took a long and painful time for people to give up the old idea of state-owned economy and to accept the idea of market economy.

------------------------------
173. "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways."

1. The notion that so-called “originality” is actually variation or synthesis of existing ideas finds its greatest support in linguistics and in law. 2. Even in the arts—where one might think that true originality must surely reside—so called “new” ideas almost always embrace, apply, or synthesize what came earlier. 3. When it comes to the natural sciences, however, some new ideas are truly original while others put established ideas together in new ways. 4. However, in other instances great advances in science are made by putting together current theories or other ideas in new ways. 創新並不意味著一定要想一些人們從未想過的東西;它意味著用新方法來重組老觀點。  

新舊問題
------------------------------
 
176. "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each."  
科學的作用是解惑;藝術的目的是創新。只有這樣他們才各得其所。 Disagree:
1. In many cases artists set about to reassure, not to upset. 2. In other cases, artists set about to upset.
3. The final objective of science, in my view, is to discover truths about our world, our universe and ourselves. Sometimes these discoveries serve to reassure, and other times they serve to upset. Reassure

upset
------------------------------

207. "Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are."  
禮節和典禮有助於定義一個文化。如果沒有這些,社會或者團體就會逐漸地迷失自我。

1. I agree with the speaker insofar as one purpose of ritual and ceremony in today’s world is to preserve cultural identity. 2. Nevertheless, preserving cultural identity cannot be the only purpose of ritual and ceremony. 3. Nor are ritual and ceremony the only means of preserving cultural identity.

------------------------------
227. "To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by truly independent thinkers who are willing to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions." 為了保持活力,所有的學術領域都需要真正的獨立思想家的領導,他們可以無視既定的限制而挑戰經久不衰的理論。  

It seems self-contradictory to require academic leaders to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions. 1. There is no doubt that academic leaders should be independent thinkers. 2. However, an academic leader in any field is supposed to represent an established paradigm in that field. 3. What might also be important is the academic leader’s ability to organize the scholars of his field to promote academic development. 挑戰權威之創新和離經叛道

------------------------------
241. "An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time." 一個人的偉大是無法為他的同代人所客觀判定的,而是應該由後人來評判。 Agree with concession

1. An individual’s contemporaries may be emotionally connected with him or her. 2. It takes time for the significance of an individual’s deeds to be recognized. 3. Admittedly, there are still plenty of cases in which people’s greatness were instantaneously recognized and judged objectively by their contemporaries. 時間問題之個人的偉大

------------------------------

第八類 藝術

82. "Government should never censor the artistic works or historical displays that a museum wishes to exhibit."  
政府根本就不應該審查一家博物館計畫展出的藝術作品或者歷史陳列。  
Disagree:
1. Museum exhibitions are an influential way of public education. 2. If the artistic works or historical displays of a museum cause destructive social conflicts, then government should step in to prohibit such exhibitions. 3. Admittedly, government should always take care not to abuse its authority. 政府之藝術

------------------------------
96. "Although, critics who write about the arts tend to deny the existence of any objective standards for evaluating works of art, they have a responsibility to establish standards by which works of art can be judged."  

儘管評論藝術的批評家們傾向于否認存在任何評價藝術作品的客觀標準,但他們還是有責任建立用於評判藝術作品的標準。  
Disagree
1. Works of art are created for people to appreciate rather than for critics to judge. 2. Setting standards for works of art tends to hinder artists’ creations. 3. Unfortunately, the reality is that too often critics have turned the public into passive audience of arts. 獨立題目

------------------------------
101. "Governments should provide funding for artists so that the arts can flourish and be available to all people."  
政府應該為藝術家提供資助以便於藝術能夠繁榮發展並且是所有人都能夠享受藝術。  
Government’s funding for artists is a double-edged sword.
1. On the one hand, without government’s funding, many artists could hardly survive in real life. 2. On the other hand, government’s funding could create dependent artists who serve not the interests of the public but those of the government. 3. It is crucial that government does not interfere with the artists’ freedom of expression while granting them financial aids. 政府和藝術

------------------------------
131. "The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the otherwise hidden ideas and impulses of a society."  
藝術(繪畫、音樂、文學等等)揭示了那些隱藏的理念和社會的脈動。  
While this assertion has merit, I think it unfairly generalizes about art. Consider two particular art forms: architecture and painting. 1. In more important architecture, one consistently sees a reflection of society’s ideas and urges. 2. However, in more important paintings of the most recent century one sees instead the artists’ personal and idiosyncratic vision of an aesthetic ideal.

藝術
------------------------------
143. "Artists should pay little attention to their critics.* Criticism tends to undermine and constrain the artist's creativity."  
*those who evaluate works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc.  
藝術家不必太在乎他們的批評者。批評總是在破壞和壓制藝術家的創造力。

Although the critic can help us understand and appreciate art, more often than not, critique is either counterproductive to achieving the objective of art or altogether irrelevant to that objective. 1. To support the statement the speaker might point out the ostensible functions of the art critic. 2. The values of these functions are in especially suspect.

藝術家和批評者(類似題目為壓力對學生的影響) ------------------------------

144. "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something of lasting value."  
*a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc.  
藝術家而不是評論家帶給了社會一些具有持久價值的東西。  
*評論家指的是評價藝術作品的人,例如小說、電影、繪畫等。

Artists and critics are supplement to each other.
1. It is the creative minds of artists that add hue to our quotidian life. 2. However, a constructive criticism could help artists promote their working level and tell people how to be a good connoisseur. 3. All of the greatest feats in history, which gave society something of lasting value, are those created by artists and evaluated by critics. Appropriate critical evaluation might entice the people’s attention towards those works.

------------------------------
158. The arts (music, dance, visual arts, etc.) are vitally important to students' education and should therefore receive as much emphasis as mathematics, science, reading and other mainstream subjects."  

藝術(音樂、舞蹈、視覺藝術等等)對與學生們的教育至關重要,因此應該和數學、自然科學等主流學科一樣受到重視。  

1. Arts will ignite the sparks of human minds, and will spur us to quarry the beauty of the nature. 2. On the other hand, mainstream subjects can help students to form critical logical mind that is crucial for making a disinterest decision. 3. It is an effective way to improve the learning efficiency by introducing the arts to the science and engineering students. ------------------------------

190. "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate--and, perhaps, even cruel--when one considers all the potential uses of such money."  

一旦人們陷於饑餓、失業或者缺乏謀生的基本技能,運用公共資源去扶持藝術是很不恰當的----並且甚至是殘忍的----尤其明知這些資金所有可能的用途。

1. The implicit rationale behind the speaker’s statement seems to be that cultural enrichment pales in importance compared to food, clothing, and shelter. 2. It might also be tempting to agree with the speaker on the basis that arts patronage is neither an appropriate nor a necessary function of government. 3. On the other hand are compelling arguments that public support for the art is desirable, whether or not unemployment and hunger have been eliminated. One such argument is that by allocating public resources to the arts, we actually help 4. A second argument against the speaker’s position has to do with the function and ultimate objectives of art.  

------------------------------
218. "In order for any work of art--whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song--to have merit, it must be understandable to most people."  
任何的藝術作品為了有價值,例如電影、文學、雕塑或者歌曲,都必須讓大多數人易於理解。

1. First consider musical art form. It would be absurd to assert that the objective of music is to challenge the listener’s knowledge of music theory. In fact, listening to music is simply an encounter—an experience to be accepted at face value for its aural impact on our spirit and our emotions. 2. Next consider the art forms of painting and sculpture. If the test for meritorious art were its ability to be clearly understood by every observer, then our most valuable art would simply imitate the mundane physical world around us. 3. Finally, consider art forms such as poetry, song, and prose, in certain cases stanzas and verses need not be “understood” to have merit, as much as they need be experienced for the images and emotions they evoke.

少數和多數之藝術價值
------------------------------
243. "The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments."  
一個文明的真正價值是反映在藝術創造中的而不是它的科學成就。

We praise a civilization both for its artistic creations and for its scientific accomplishments. 1. Western civilization serves as a typical example of a balanced development of arts and science. 2. By contrast, the Chinese civilization has bequeathed the world a rich legacy of artistic creations, but its scientific accomplishments are insignificant. 3. A dynamic civilization should aim at promoting the prosperity of both the arts and science.

藝術和科學
------------------------------

第九類 歷史

26. "Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."  

大多數人都同意一個社會的建築物代表了它有價值的歷史紀錄,但是當現代規劃者們覺得這些以前的建築物所佔據的土地可以被更有價值的使用于新目的時,就產生了爭議,現代發展應該比保留歷史建築物更受重視以便於滿足眼下的需求。  
Which interest should take precedence should be determined on a case-by-case basis--and should account not only for practical and historic considerations but also aesthetic ones. 1. In determining whether to raze an older building, planners should of course consider the community’s current and anticipated utilitarian needs. 2. Competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is an interest preserving the historical record, the weight of which should also be determined on a case-by-case basic. 3. Also competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is the aesthetic and architectural value of the building itself—apart from historical events with which it might be associated. 過去和現在之建築物

------------------------------
48. "The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten."  

歷史研究過於關注個人。歷史上最有意義的事件和潮流能夠成為可能不是因為幾個少數的名人而是一些身份早就被淡忘的人群。

1. Admittedly, at times distinctive groups of people have played a more pivotal role than key individuals in important historical developments. 2. However, undue attention to the efforts and contributions of various groups tends to obscure the cause-and-effect relationship with which the study of history is chiefly concerned. 3. Profound scientific inventions and discoveries of the past are nearly all attributable not to forgettable groups of people but to certain key individuals.  

少數和多數,精英和大眾
------------------------------
54. "History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today."  
歷史只教會了我們一件事:瞭解過去無助於人們今天做出重要的決定。  
Disagree
1. It is a common misconception that what happened in the past has nothing to do with present society. 2. Individually, men can learn from the experience of great figures in history. 3. In business, case studies enable business people to confront their every day challenges. 4. Admittedly, there are entirely new problems that we have to cope with on our own without any precedent in history to refer to.

時間問題之歷史不是今天的一面鏡子
------------------------------
103. "The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives."  
只有研究和我們日常生活相關的歷史才有價值。  
1. To begin with, learning about great human achievements of the past provides inspiration. 2. In addition, mistakes of the past can teach us as a society how to avoid repeating those mistakes. 3. Studying human history can also help us understand and appreciate the mores, values, and ideals of past cultures. 4. Appreciating history can serve to elevate our everyday chores to richer, more interesting, and more enjoyable experience. 歷史研究

------------------------------
 
110. "When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."  

當我們通過研究歷史來考慮自身問題的時候,我們就會變成說故事的人。因為我們不可能直接瞭解過去,只有通過解釋一些史料來構造歷史,所以探索歷史更多是一件創造性的事業而不是客觀的追尋。所有的歷史學家都是講故事的人。

I agree that it is the proper and necessary role of historians to “construct” history by interpreting evidence. Nevertheless, the speaker’s characterization of this role as “storytelling” carries certain unfair implications, which should be addressed.

1. Unless we grant to the historian a license to “construct” history by interpreting evidence, we relegate the historian to the role of mere archivist or journalist. 2. The inexorable result of disagreement, debate, and divergent interpretations among historians is a fuller and more incisive understanding of history. 3. However, we should be careful not to confuse this license to interpret history, which is needed for any historian to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of it, with artistic license, which should be reserved for dramatists, novelists and poets. ------------------------------

125. "The past is no predictor of the future."
 
過去是無法預測未來的。

1. Nobody can foretell the future exactly.
2. However, knowledge of the past can provide us a rough idea about what might happen in the future. 3. Wisdom of the past provides necessary resources to help us confront the old or new problems of the future. 過去和未來

------------------------------
189. "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no longer answer the needs of the present."  
如果人們忽視了過去的偉大成就,那只能是因為這些成就已經不再滿足現今的需要了。

1. In general, it would appear that art is more likely motivated by an interest in keeping pace with science and technology than by a desire to break from it. 2. Admittedly, some works of art would appear to reject, or at least provide a respite from, science and technology. 3. Moreover, the speaker’s concern for whether art’s function is to embrace or oppose science and technology begs the question, for the final objective of art lies instead in its ability to convey a society’s values, ideals, and concerns.

過去和現在之偉大成就
 
------------------------------
221. "The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."  

研究歷史最大的好處就是打破了這種假像:不同時代的人們之間基本上是完全不同的。

1. I agree with the statement insofar as through the earnest study of human history we learn that basic human nature—our desires and motives, as well as our fears and foibles—has remained constant over recorded time. 2. However beneficial it might be to appreciate the unchanging nature of humankind, it is equally beneficial to understand and appreciate significant differences between peoples of different time periods—in terms of cultural mores, customs, values and ideals. 3. Another problem with the statement is that it undervalues other, equally important benefits of studying history. 

------------------------------

第十類 國際

11. "All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems."  
所有的國家都應該支持發展一所全球性的大學,它的主要目的是要讓學生們致力於解決世界上最難纏的社會問題。

Disagree
1. First, participant nations would need to overcome a myriad of administrative and political impediments. 2. A second problem inherent in establishing a global university involves the risk that certain intellectual and research avenues would become officially sanctioned while others of equal or greater potential value would be discouraged, or perhaps even proscribed. 3. A final problem with a global university is that the world’s preeminent intellectual talent might be drawn to the sorts of problems to which the university is charged with solving, while parochial social problem go unsolved. 全球化問題之全球解難大學

------------------------------
13. "Many of the world's lesser-known languages are being lost as fewer and fewer people speak them. The governments of countries in which these languages are spoken should act to prevent such languages from becoming extinct."  

世界上很多的小語種都快要消失了,因為越來越少的人在使用這些語言。使用這些小語種的國家應該採取行動以防止這樣的語言逐漸銷聲匿跡。 I agree insofar as a country's indigenous and distinct languages should not be abandoned and forgotten altogether. At some point, however, I think cultural identity should yield to the more practical considerations of day-to-day life in a global society.

1. On the one hand, the indigenous language of any geographical region is part-and-parcel of the cultural heritage of the region's natives. 2. Another important reason to prevent the extinction of a language is to preserve the distinct ideas that only that particular language can convey. 3. On the other hand, in today's high-tech world of satellite communications, global mobility, and especially the Internet, language barriers serve primarily to impede cross-cultural communication, which in turn impedes international commerce and trade. 4. Moreover, language barriers naturally breed misunderstanding, a certain distrust and, as a result, discord and even war among nations. 5. Furthermore, in my view the extinction of all but a few major languages is inexorable--as supported by the fact that the Internet has adopted English as its official language. Thus by intervening to preserve a dying language a government might be deploying its resources to fight a losing battle, rather than to combat more pressing social problems--such as hunger, homelessness, disease and ignorance--that plague nearly every society today.

反全球化問題之小語種與政府保護
------------------------------
116. "With the growth of global networks in such areas as economics and communication, there is no doubt that every aspect of society-including education, politics, the arts, and the sciences-will benefit greatly from international influences."  

隨著全球網路在經濟和通訊等領域中的發展,毫無疑問,社會的各個領域--包括教育、政治、藝術和科學--都會從國際影響中獲益匪淺。

While those influences will no doubt benefit education and the sciences, the nature of those influences on the arts and on politics will probably be a mixed one-beneficial in some respects yet detrimental in others.

1. The clearest and most immediate beneficiaries of international influences are students. 2. The science clearly benefit from international influences as well. 3. With respect to the arts, however, the speaker’s claim is far less convincing. 4. The impact of global networking on political relations might turn out to be a mixed one as well.

全球化
------------------------------
197. "The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."  
一個國家的物質進步和安定和其他所有國家的物質進步和安定是緊密相關的。 Agree:
1. Turning first to economic progress and well-being, the economic pursuits of any nation today are not merely connected to but actually interwoven with those of other nations. 2. In other cases the economic connection between nations is synergic—either mutually beneficial or detrimental. 3. Nations have also become interconnected in the pursuit of scientific and technological progress. 4. The world’s nations have become especially interconnected in terms of their public health. 國家之間的關係

------------------------------
205. "As societies all over the world have more and more access to new information, the effects on life-long learning can only be positive." 全世界各個社會獲得嶄新資訊的手段越來越多,這對於人們一生的學習來說是有益無害的。  
The effects of the abundant information available through the electronic media on life-long learning are not always positive. 1. There is no doubt that the electronic media such as the Internet can make great contributions to life-long learning by providing people with on-line education through their lives. 2. However, we should not equate information with education. 3. There are still many problems to be solved before people everywhere in the world can use the internet for life-long learning. 全球化之資訊

------------------------------

第十一類 傳媒

38. "In the age of television, reading books is not as important as it once was. People can learn as much by watching television as they can by reading books."  
電視時代的讀書已經不像以前那麼重要了。人們通過看電視學到的和他們讀書所能學到的一樣多。  
Disagree
1. Admittedly, television holds certain advantages over books for imparting certain types of knowledge. 2. However, the speaker overlooks several respects in which books are inherently superior to television as a medium for learning. 3. The speaker also ignores the decided tendency on the part of owners and managers of television media to filter information in order to appeal to the widest viewing audience, and thereby maximize profit. 4. Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has to do with how well books and television serve their respective archival functions. 現代技術之電視和讀書

------------------------------
60. "The media--and society in general--mistakenly expect an individual to speak for a particular group, whether or not that individual truly represents the views of the entire group."  

媒體和整個社會錯誤地希望某個人的發言就是代表了某一個特定的群體,無論這個個人是否代表了整個群體的意見。  
There is high risk that the media and society may place unrealistically high expectation on an individual’s ability to represent a particular group. 1. The interviewees, usually chosen by chance to present through the media, cannot represent either the whole public of a particular group. 2. Even in a so-called democratic country, the representative chosen by a particular group on the basis of majority rule are not supposed to speak for the majority of the group. 3. It is necessary for society to remain sensitive to the limitations of representatives to represent the public. 少數和多數之發表意見

------------------------------
109. "The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves."  

很多廣告的目的是要消費者去購買一件產品以使得消費者們像廣告中的人物。這類的廣告很有效因為它不僅是在銷售產品更是在幫助人們自我感覺更好。  
This assertion actually consists of two claims: that this advertising technique is used effectively in selling many products, and that consumers who succumb to this technique actually feel better about themselves as a result. While I agree with the first claim, I strongly disagree with the second one.

1. As for whether the many, many ads portraying models are effective in selling products, I am not privy to the sort of statistical information required to answer this question with complete certainty. However, my intuition is that this technique does help sell products; otherwise, advertisers would not use it so persistently. 2. Consumers lured by the hope of "being like" the person in an ad might experience some initial

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • SOCIAL ISSUES AMONG TEENAGERS JOAN

    ...SOCIAL ISSUES AMONG TEENAGERS. Teenagers were the future leaders of this day and the next national vision . The rapid economic and technological development has an impact on social and human development of adolescents . Government and other parties also seek to educate young people in shaping adolescent quality to lead the country from the pr...

    Read More
  • Contemporary Issues

    ...Contemporary Issues in Finance You are a research assistant to the Board of the FTSE100 listed company. Write a report for your Board of Directors outlining the current trends in seasoned equity issues. Explain what financing options (particularly seasoned equity issuance) the company has if it wishes to undertake the purchase of a rival. ...

    Read More
  • Social Issues in Taiwan

    ...s991024 Eva Chen Social Issues in Taiwan In recent years, many serious social issues keep happening constantly in Taiwan, causing a lot of people depressing and frustrating. According to the page of Dajiyaun published in 2009/08/29, the rate of happiness in Taiwan ranks at the bottom among seven Asian countries. People in Singapore, Viet...

    Read More
  • Social Issues Involving Zambia

    ... Social Issues Involving Human Disadvantage Within Zambia Erica Banda Social Change, Cultures and Development in Africa 3 February 2014 During my readings of C. Wright Mills, I was introduced to the concept of social imagination. Social imagination is the quality of achieving a lucid summation of what is...

    Read More
  • Sociological issues in sport.

    ...Functionalism is often referred to as the consensus theory because it does not address the issue of conflict in society, and functionalists believe that society operates in a harmonious way that maintains itself in a state of balance, remaining healthy and co-ordinated and any sudden practices that may upset the balance are rejected: "Sociologi...

    Read More
  • Defining Social Issues

    ...TOPIC: Define Social Issues THESIS STATEMENT: The term Social Issues may be defined as problems or social conditions that affect members of a society such as poverty, domestic violence and gang violence TOPIC SENTENCE OUTLINE POVERTY Poverty is one of the social problems faced by members of a society; it is a condition whereby individua...

    Read More
  • Abortion. A social issue

    ...SOCHEILI-MEHR FEBUARY 11, 2013. INTRODUCTION The name of the social issue we will be looking at is abortion. Abortion is defined as a procedure to terminate or end pregnancy by removing the fetus from the uterus either medically or surgically. Abortions have been around over many centuries but have been more common in the 1800’s. I wish t...

    Read More
  • How Valuable Is Sociological Knowledge in Contributing to Our Understanding of Contemporary Health Issues?

    ...How valuable is sociological knowledge in contributing to our understanding of contemporary health issues? Sociological knowledge assists understanding of how social issues impact on health and illness experiences in society (Barry & Yuill 2008, pp.5-10). In this context, sociological issues will refer to case study number one, about Ernie. B...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.