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Graphization, Standardization, Modernization

By Drimarcha1 May 06, 2013 1188 Words
Language Graphization

Graphization refers to development, selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. In other words, graphitization deals with changing the written form. it includes the writing system, letters, numbers, and so forth. Linguist Charles A. Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system. First, the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community’s repertory. Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language, the vocabulary, grammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety. Second, the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the ‘real’ language, and speech is a corruption of it.

Written language is viewed as more conservative, while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change. However, this view ignores the possibility that isolated relic areas of the language may be less innovative than the written form or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language. In establishing a writing system for a language, corpus planners have the option of using an existing system or inventing a new one. The example of this graphization is for example the old Indonesian writing system transforms into the new Indonesian writing system as follow:


Language Standardization

The definition of language standardization according to Kamwangamalu (2001:194) based on Crystal (1985), is stated as “standardization is a natural development of a standard language in a speech community or an attempt by a community to impose one dialect as standard.” He explains the activity of standardization as a direct and deliberate intervention by society to create a standard language in a situation where non standard varieties are used, by referring Hudson (1980). Similarly, Ekkehard Wolff (2000:332) said language standardization is a means in ‘language development,’ selection and promotion of variants with a language.

It usually involves development of language related activities like grammars, spelling books and dictionaries, and literature. It is also changing some spoken form of a particular language to be written down in an official manner with the intention of making this particular variety the preferred variety. When one deals with language standardization, it targeted to turning linguistic varieties into standard languages into two senses. First, in a sense of approved and accepted norm above all vernacular, colloquial and dialectal varieties for general and normative usage in certain domains such as literature, science, education, the media, the churches, public sectors, and so on. In the second sense, it is a regular and codified normative system of reference supported by a standard orthography, standard reference grammars and standard dictionaries.

There are four process of language standardization. They are selection, codification, elaboration, and acceptance.

1. Selection
At this stage, the main stage is dialectical choice. The criteria of selection can be one of such factors as: historical, resolution of some bodies of experts, by legislation, demographics and others.

2. Codification
After the selection of a dialect, what follows is the codification. Codification is the rule. It includes the grammar, sounds, and so on. The result of codification will be grammar books, synonym and antonym dictionaries, dictionaries, guidance of making types of letters and so forth.

3. Elaboration
This is the stage at which the selected dialect and the codified norm are used at different domains like education, media, literature, and other domain. The main purpose of this elaboration is to socialize the codification.

4. Acceptance
Acceptance deals with the acceptance of the codification in the society. The society will accept the codification or do not accept the codification based on some factors.

There are some examples of language standardization such as the changing from the old Indonesian writing system, Van Ophusyen to present Indonesian writing system, Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan. The other examples are extended as follow. a) the use of prefix me- and ber- explicitly and consistently. Example :

Bahasa Indonesia baku :           Adit berjanji akan pulang liburan ini. Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : Adit janji akan pulang liburan ini. b) the use of grammatical function
Bahasa Indonesia baku : Fikri berlibur ke kota Semarang
Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : Fikri ke kota Semarang

c) the use of bahwa
Bahasa Indonesia baku : Fadil tahu bahwa adiknya tidak lulus ujian. Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : Fadil tahu adiknya tidak lulus ujian d) the use of verbal aspek + agen + verba
Bahasa Indonesia baku : hadiah itu telah saya terima
Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : hadiah itu saya telah terima
e) the use of synthesis
Bahasa Indonesia baku : siswa memberitahu bahwa besok siang akan ada rapat osis. Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : siswa kasih tahu bahwa besog siang ada rapat osis. f) the use of kah, lah, and pun
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia baku : bagaimanakah memasak sayur itu?
Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : bagaimana cara memasak sayur itu? g) the use of correct preposition
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia baku : rezka pergi ke kampus dengan temanya Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : rezka pergi ke kampus sama temanya h) the use of repetition form
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia baku : semua mahasiswa diharapkan masuk ke aula Bahasa Indonesia tidak baku : semua mahasiswa diharapkan masuk aula i) the use of lexibel components
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia Baku : pak Budi mengatakan bahwa hari ini praktikum Bahasa Indonesia Tidak Baku : pak Budi bilang bahwa hari inin praktikm j) the use of standard word
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia Baku : apotek, akhlak, aktivitas dll
Bahasa Indonesia Tdak Baku : apotik, ahlak, aktifitas dll
k) the use of official terms
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia Baku : Acak sahih tataran dll
Bahasa Indonesia Tdak Baku : Random, valid,level dll
l) the use of standard grammar
Example :
Bahasa Indonesia Baku : Materi itu sudah kita kusai
Bahasa Indonesia Tidak Baku : Materi itu sudah dikuasai kita

Language Modernization
Modernization is a form of language planning that occurs when a language needs to expand its resources to meet functions and demands of the modern world. Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status, such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy. The most significant force in modernization is the expansion of the lexicon, which allows the language to discuss topics in modern semantic domains. Language planners generally focus on creating new lists and glossaries to describe new technical terms, but it is also necessary to ensure that the new terms are consistently used by the appropriate sectors within society.

There are three strategies of language modernization. They are: 1. Borrowing words
2. The standardization of words from indigenous languages
3. The creation of new words

The example of this modernization is the extension of some words, for example: Kegiatan(Aktifitas
Tepat guna(Efektif

Graphization, standardization, and modernization are three parts of corpus planning. Corpus planning, which deals with the development of linguistic factors of a language, in this case the internal features of a language is aimed at the development of language. By developing languages, a preservation of language is also actually done.

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