A grand theory is a systematic construction for the nature of nursing that has a clear mission and goals for nursing care. There are four categories of schools of thought within the realm of grand theories to include needs theories, interaction theories, outcome theories, and lastly caring/becoming theories. In the following tables I have highlighted a theorist from each school of thought and briefly discussed their educational background, my perception of their definition and philosophy of nursing, and the goal/purpose of their theory.
Needs theorist Faye Abdellah
Faye Abdellah received her nursing education at Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Nepture, N.J. and graduated in 1942. She then went on to study chemistry at Rutgers University prior to receiving her Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Education degrees from the Teacher’s College of Columbia University, N.Y. Retrieved from http://fayeabdellah.blogspot.com/p/backgroud-publications.html
Philosophy of nursing
According to Meleis, her philosophy of nursing includes the use of problem solving approach to deal with 21 distinct problems related to needs of patients. She described a problem as a condition faced by the patient for which a nurse can assist, overtly and covertly. This is done by preventative care (to include hygiene, safety, exercise, rest, sleep, and body mechanics), sustenal care (psychological), remedial care (oxygen, fluid, nutrition, and elimination), and finally restorative care (coping with the illness and life adjustment). Meleis, A.I. (2012), p. 162-164.
Definition of nursing
"Nursing is based on an art and science that moulds the attitudes, intellectual competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs" as stated by Faye Abdellah in her Twenty-one Nursing Problems theory (1960).
References: Abdellah, F. G., Beland, I. I., Martin, A., & Matheney, R. V. (1960). Patient-centered approaches in nursing. New York: Macmillan. Meleis, A.I. (2012). Theoretical Nursing Development & Progress, Fifth Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. http://fayeabdellah.blogspot.com/p/backgroud-publications.html http://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/peplau-theory-of-interpersonal-relations.php http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Hildegard-Peplau.php http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Rosemarie-Rizzo-Parse.php http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Sister-Callista-Roy.php