Grand Theory Written Assignment 3.1
A grand theory is a systematic construction for the nature of nursing that has a clear mission and goals for nursing care. There are four categories of schools of thought within the realm of grand theories to include needs theories, interaction theories, outcome theories, and lastly caring/becoming theories. In the following tables I have highlighted a theorist from each school of thought and briefly discussed their educational background, my perception of their definition and philosophy of nursing, and the goal/purpose of their theory. Needs theorist Faye Abdellah
Faye Abdellah received her nursing education at Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Nepture, N.J. and graduated in 1942. She then went on to study chemistry at Rutgers University prior to receiving her Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Education degrees from the Teacher’s College of Columbia University, N.Y. Retrieved from http://fayeabdellah.blogspot.com/p/backgroud-publications.html Philosophy of nursing
According to Meleis, her philosophy of nursing includes the use of problem solving approach to deal with 21 distinct problems related to needs of patients. She described a problem as a condition faced by the patient for which a nurse can assist, overtly and covertly. This is done by preventative care (to include hygiene, safety, exercise, rest, sleep, and body mechanics), sustenal care (psychological), remedial care (oxygen, fluid, nutrition, and elimination), and finally restorative care (coping with the illness and life adjustment). Meleis, A.I. (2012), p. 162-164. Definition of nursing
"Nursing is based on an art and science that moulds the attitudes, intellectual competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs" as stated by Faye Abdellah in her Twenty-one Nursing Problems theory (1960). Goal/purpose of theory
To help the individual or patient meet health needs and adjust to their health problems. Meleis, A.I. (2012), p. 164.
Interaction theorist Hildegard Peplau
Hildegard Peplau graduated from the diploma nursing program Pottstown, PA in 1931 and went on to be a staff nurse. Peplau then was recommended to work as a school nurse at Bennington College located in Vermont. While working there she earned her Bachelor’s Degree in Interpersonal Psychology in 1943. From there she went on to earn her Master’s and Doctoral degrees from Teacher’s College of Columbia University. In addition she became certified in psychoanalysis thru the William Alanson White Institution of New York City. Retrieved from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Hildegard-Peplau.php Philosophy of nursing
Peplau’s philosophy of nursing focused on harnessing energy psychological disturbances such as anxiety and tension to define understanding with patients and deal with the problem at hand. She felt the goals of nursing included developing patients personalities to make illness an eventful experience. She felt nurses need to develop problem-solving skills via the interpersonal process (educational, therapeutic, and collaborative). Definition of nursing
Peplau’s concept and view of nursing is that it is a therapeutic, interpersonal, goal oriented process that is a healing art. It involves recognizing and assisting the patient (individual who is ill or in need of health care) in achieving a common goal. This requires the nurse and patient to build a trusting relationship by way of orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution (the phases of growing an interpersonal relationship). Meleis, A.I. (2012), p. 165-166. She identified the many roles that nurses must take in order to have a meaningful relationship with patients and that nurses must understand the relationship to provide good care. Goal/purpose of theory
The ultimate goal...
References: Abdellah, F. G., Beland, I. I., Martin, A., & Matheney, R. V. (1960). Patient-centered approaches in nursing. New York: Macmillan.
Meleis, A.I. (2012). Theoretical Nursing Development & Progress, Fifth Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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