Grammatical Tenses and Perfect Continuous

Topics: Grammatical tenses, Past tense, Time Pages: 20 (5233 words) Published: August 28, 2013
TOEIC Grammar

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TENSES 1. Present Simple 1.1. Form: Tense Present Simple (Hiện tại đơn) S + V (s/ es). S + don’t/ doesn’t + V. Do/ Does + S + V? 1.2. Usage: We use present simple: - To refer to something which happens often or for a habit that we have  I usually do my homework immediately after school. Form Example The postman always comes at eleven. The postman doesn’t always come at eleven. Does the postman always come at eleven?

- To refer to permanent states  They live in England.

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- To talk about general truths or natural laws.  Water boils at 1000 Celsius.

- When we refer to programs (cinema, theatre, etc.) or timetables (for ships, trains, etc.)   The film starts at 8.00 pm. Our plane leaves at half past six.

- To describe a sports fact or to tell the story of a film or a book.   Andy Wilson scores his first goal! Sean Jameson, who plays the part of the detective, dies in a car crash.

1.3. Time markers: Some time markers (dấu hiệu thời gian) which we often use with the present simple are:  Adverbs of frequency (trạng từ tần xuất): always, sometimes, often, usually, occasionally, never, rarely, seldom, etc.  Other time markers such as everyday/ week/ month, on Mondays, Tuesdays, at the weekend, once a week/ year etc.

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Note: Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb.    He usually goes to bed early. He doesn’t usually go to bed early. Does he usually go to bed early?

The rest of time markers usually go at the end or at the beginning of the sentence.   She goes to bed early every day. In the mornings, we have some cereal for breakfast.

2. Present Continuous 2.1. Form: Tense Present Continuous (Hiện tại tiếp diễn) Form S + am/ is/ are + Ving. S + am/ is/ are not + Ving. Am/ Is/ Are + S + Ving? 2.2. Usage: We use present continuous: - To describe something that is happening now  Be quiet! I’m doing my homework. Example They are sleeping at the moment. They aren’t sleeping at the moment. Are they sleeping at the moment?

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- To describe temporary states and actions  She’s staying with her grandparents this week.

- To describe states that are changing or developing  Prices are rising very fast these days.

- To describe something that we plan to do in the immediate future  We’ve leaving for France tomorrow.

- To describe actions that are repeated and are annoying. In this case, we usually use adverbs such as always, constantly, etc  You’re always borrowing my things without asking!

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2.3. Time markers Some time markers that we often use with the present continuous are: now, at the moment, at present, today, these days, this month/ week, etc. 3. Present Perfect Simple 3.1. Form: Tense Present Perfect Simple (Hiện tại hoàn thành) Form S + have/ has + P2. S + have/ has not + P2. Have/ Has + S + P2? 3.2 Usage: We use the present perfect simple: - For an action that happened in the past at an indeterminable time (thời gian không xác định). We do not refer to when the action happened because we do not know or it does not concern us.  I’ve met Sarah. She’s a nice girl. Example We have known them since last year. We haven’t known them since last year. Have we known them since last year?

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- To describe an action that happened in the past but influences or has a visible effect on the present.  Dad was washed the car. It’s clean.

- To refer to an action that started in the past and is continuing in the present.  Mr Allan has been a teacher for twenty – five years.

- To refer an action that happened during a period of time that has not ended yet.  I’ve read three books this month.

- To talk about experiences that we have or have not had in our life.    Have you ever met anyone famous? She’s never funniest story that I’ve ever...
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