Model sentence: He’s (he has) lost his passport.
a) Analysis of meaning: He’s lost his passport on his way to the airport “presently speaking about an action that had taken place in the past”.
b) Conveying meaning: My friend Ali had booked a plane to Malaysia. He asked me to take him to the airport. He left the house with his passport, at some point between him leaving the house and being in transit he must have lost his passport. As he arrived to the departure gate he couldn’t find it. He asked the receptionist at the lost and found service to make an announcement. No one turned up with it. Poor Ali; he’s lost his passport.
c) Checking meaning: Did Ali leave the house with his passport? Yes Was Ali able to get on the plane? No Was Ali able to find his passport when he arrived to the airport gate? No
Do we know exactly when he lost it? No
d) Form: Present perfect.
He (Subject) + has (aux.) + lost (verb) +his (pronoun) +passport (object). +Past participle.
He’s lost his passport. (Highlighted words show sentence stresses) /hi:z//lɒst/
Model sentence: I wish I hadn’t (had not) eaten so much last night.
a) Analysis of meaning: I kept eating throughout the night until my stomach started to hurt. When I had woken up my stomach was still hurting. Up to now I feel the stomach ache. I regretted eating that much, I don’t know how long this pain will last. If I had been sensible this wouldn’t have happened.
b) Checking meaning: My friends and I went to an all eat buffet last night. We decided to have a
Bibliography: A concise grammar for English language teachers by Tony Penston. P(1-21 and58) http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com http://www.macmillanenglish.com/phonemic-chart/ Time lines and coach done by my self (Photoshop) Learner English by Norman Coe p. (90-113)