* We call nouns naming-words. They are the names of people, animals, places and things. Each person, animal, place and thing has a name.
E.g. – woman, baby, cow, dog, sea, beach, table, cupboard etc. Countable and Uncountable nouns
* Nouns which can be counted are called countable nouns. We use a, an, a few, several, many, some, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of with countable nouns. E.g. – many birds, a few cars, a lot of flowers, a large number of books, some pencils
We use “a” with nouns that begin with consonant letters. E.g. – a car, a table, a cupboard, a man, a dog etc.
We use “an” with nouns that begin with vowel letters. (a,e,i,o,u) E.g. – an orange, an apple, an hour, an eraser etc.
* Nouns which cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns. We use a little, much, some, plenty of, a lot of, a large amount of, a great deal of with uncountable nouns. (We never use a and an with uncountable nouns) E.g. – not much water, a little ice, plenty of food, a large amount of rice
* Proper nouns are special names of people, animals, things or places Proper Nouns always begin with capital letters.
E.g. – Jason (boy-person), Tom (dog-animal), Sea Fairy (ship-thing), Pearl River (river-place) Collective Nouns
* The name used for a number of people, animals, or things which are collected together and taken as a whole is a called a Collective Noun. E.g. – People
A company of actorsA troupe of dancersA party of friendsA gang of labourers A band of musiciansA tribe of nativesA team of playersA posse of policemen
| A class of pupilsA crew of sailorsA staff of servantsA choir of singerAn army of soldiers A crowd of spectatorsA staff of teachersA gang of thieves
E.g. – Things
A flight of aeroplanesA bunch of bananasA library of bookA pack of cardsA set of chinaA packet of cigarettes A suit of clothesA bale of cottonA chest of drawersA bouquet of flowersA suite of furniture
| A bunch of grapesA tuft of grassA stack of hayA group of islandsA fleet of motor-carsA collection of picturesA fleet of shipsA collection of stampsA flight of stepsA bundle of sticksA set of tools
E.g. – Animals
A nest of antsA swarm of beesA flock of birdsA herd of buffaloesA herd of cattleA brood of chickensA shoal of fishA swarm of insectsA litter of kittens
| A troop of lions/monkeysA nest of miceA team of oxenA litter of puppiesA nest of rabbitsA flock of sheepA flight of swallowsA school of whalesA pack of wolves
Singular and Plural Nouns
* A noun that stands for one person, thing, animal or place is called a singular noun. A noun that stands for more than one person, thing, animal or place is called plural noun. The list below shows how plural nouns are formed.
1. By adding –s.
Son …. Sons Goat …. GoatsPicture …. Pictures Table …. Tables
| Farmer …. Farmers House …. Houses Banana …. Bananas Bicycle …. Bicycles
2. By adding –es to nouns ending in –s, –sh, –ch and –x. Glass …. Glasses Class …. Classes Kiss …. Kisses Bus …. Buses Watch …. Watches Inch …. InchesMatch …. Matches Branch …. Branches
| Brush …. Brushes Bush …. Bushes Dish …. Dishes Thrush …. Thrushes Box …. Boxes Fox …. Foxes Tax …. Taxes Sex …. Sexes
3. By adding –es to some nouns ending –o.
Buffalo …. Buffaloes Potato …. PotatoesEcho …. Echoes Hero …. Heroes
| Mango …. MangoesCargo …. Cargoes Volcano …. Volcanoes Negro …. Negroes
4. By adding –s to some nouns ending in –o .
Bamboo …. BamboosPiano …. Pianos Radio …. Radios
| Banjo …. Banjos Photo …. PhotosDynamo …. Dynamos
5. By changing –y into –ies.
Baby …. Babies Lady …. LadiesStory …. Stories Fly …. Flies
| Cry …. CriesLorry …. LorriesCity …. CitiesArmy …. Armies
6. By adding –s to some nouns ending in –y.
Monkey …. Monkeys
Way …. Ways
Day …. Days
Valley …. Valleys
Boy …. Boys
Key …. Keys
7. By changing –f or –fe into –ves.
Leaf …. Leaves
Loaf …. Loaves
Thief …. Thieves
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