Wilfred Laurier, Prime Minister (1896-1911)
• Canada dominated by Victorian Ideals
-Children seen, but not heard
-Young couples could not meed without escort
-Gentlemen & Ladies wore hats
-Ladies entertained at home, always observing best etiquitte
-Playing cards and whiskey seen as immoral
• New technology altered life for many
-Automobile-rich man’s toy
-Bicycle- New styles; cheaper than a horse
-Mechanized farms: combines, threshers
-”Magic Lantern” shows projected images (like slides)
-”Open door policy” encouraged people to settle in west
-European nations targeted
-Many races turned away; Canada not yet multicultural
• Why immigrate?
-Push factors: high taxes, ethnic minorities (Ukrainians, Poles) suffered, America was full
-Pull factors: Free land, democratic/religious freedoms, new railways provided access
• Canada’s challenges for the future
-Imperialism? Should Canada continue to be an important part of Britain’s empire?
-Nationalism? Should Canada aspire to develop independently of the empire?
-Continentialism? Should Canada form close relations with America? Perhaps be annexed by them, forming 1 big nation?
Foreign Policy Issues
The Boer War (1899)
• The British were at war with Dutch settlers in South Africa over colonies. Joseph Chamberlain, Britain’s minister of colonies, told Laurier to send troops to help.
• English-Canadian Imperialists: Felt that it was their duty to help Great Britain in the war. Argued that war would be beneficial to economy, and help Canada get on good terms with Britain, who would help them in the Alaska Boundary Dispute.
• French-Canadian Nationalists: Did not wish to support the British war. Did not agree with Chamberlain’s goal of conquering South Africa. Felt Canada should not get involved in matters that did not concern them.
• Laurier attempted to compromise and sent