Governance implies control, direction, and rule with authority or administers laws to govern a system to achieve certain objectives. Good Governance implies running administration according to the defined laws to achieve the objective of promoting the welfare of the people in a democratic oriented order. Bad governance means departing from the norms of laws and subjecting system of administration to whims, idiosyncrasies of the rulers to achieve certain ulterior motives at the cost of national interests. The hallmark of great nations is that they learn from their past experience to become wiser in conducting their current and future affairs. Another distinctive feature of such nations is that they try to understand the emerging long-term trends to identify new challenges, and plan for the future so as to take maximum advantage of the opportunities and avoid the pitfalls that may lie ahead. On the other hand, the nations on the trajectory of decay and ultimate oblivion neither learn from the past nor have the inclination to look ahead into the future to plan for their security, progress and welfare. All it lacks in the context of Pakistan; socially, economically and politically as well. In the words of Mahbbub-ul-Haq, ‘Crisis in Governance’, “Human Development Report in South Asia”: “Governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage the resources of a country. It is always based upon certain rules and laws established by the members of a society. These laws agreed upon by the society are, in fact, to make governance pro-welfare in the larger interest of the people. The ultimate goal of governance is human development through decreasing human suffering and increasing opportunities.” He further writes:
“Good Governance is exercising authority in accordance with the established laws, and any digression or subversion from these laws is bad governance. Whereas Good Governance guarantees safety and security of human beings and creates an atmosphere conducive to progress and prosperity. Bad governance has the germs of fathering a number of crises. No state is free of all crises but it is the quality of governance that ensures its survival through any crisis. Crises flee at the hands of Good Governance and they are multiplied in abd governance. Crisis management requires employment of all available resources, human, physical and technological in the best manner and it is only possible in Good Governance. States having Good Governance are capable of fighting any crisis even with the meager resources.” Four characteristics, namely, fairness or merit, competence, ability and integrity underline Good Governance. As for fairness, it calls for ensuring equality of opportunity through merit, transparency to meet the end of justice. Competence and ability are inter-related inasmuch as ability is linked to competence of an individual. The recognition of competence through merit in employment needs to be accorded the highest priority to lay basis for Good Governance. The worth of an individual in functionally specific societies depends upon his competence and ability to do a job efficiently rather than his family connections to secure a job for which he is not suited. Jobs are offered to individuals on the basis of their competence and ability in societies that have Good Governance. In pluralistic societies like Pakistan, it is not the suitability of an individual for a particular job but his clannish connections plus the influence he wields in political hierarchy that could get him a job though he may not possess the required qualifications. In such societies merit is discarded to accommodate certain favourites and jobs particularly in public sector go to those who do not possess competence to man them. Handling of jobs by incompetent personnel gives a set back to Good Governance for achieving efficient-oriented results. Good Governance stands for the strength of...
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