Questions For Review
1. What are the two major forms of workforce diversity?
There are Biographical Characteristics and Ability.
2. What are stereotypes and how do they function in organizational setting? Stereotypes is assumes everyone in a group is the same. They reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, and increased turnover. They also leaves qualified job candidates out of initial hiring and promotions. 3. What are the key biographical Characteristics and how are they relevant to OB? * Age: Employers hold mixed feelings. They see a number of positive qualities older workers bring to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. But older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology * Sex: Workers who experience sexual harassment have higher levels of psychological stress, and these feelings in turn are related to lower levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and higher intentions to turn over * Race and Ethnicity: Members of racial and ethnic minorities report higher levels of discrimination in the workplace. Some research suggests that having a positive climate for diversity overall can lead to increased sales. * Disability: The accomplishments of those with disabilities are often rated as more impressive than same accomplishments in people without disabilities. * Tenure: Age and tenure are treated separately, tenure appears a more consistent and stable predictor of job satisfaction than age * Religion: Often people of different religious faiths conflict. * Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Dealing with transgender employees requires some special considerations such as for bathrooms, employ names, and so on 4. What is intellectual ability and how is it relevant to OB? Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. And they are big help in performing a job well and having more interest in job. 5. How can you contrast intellectual and physical ability? * Intellectual: The capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem solving * Physical Abilities: The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. There are also little relationship among physical abilities: a high sore on one is no assurance of a high score on others. 6. How do organizations manage diversity effectively?
First, they teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. Second, they teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diver market of customers and clients. Third, they foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.
Chapter 3, Attitude and Job Satisfaction
Questions For Review
1. What are the main components of attitudes? Are these components related or unrelated? * Cognitive component: a description of or belief in the way things are. * Affective component: affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. * Behavioral component: an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. These components are related. These things make negative attitude toward supervisor. 2. Does behavior always follow from attitudes? Why or why not? Discuss the factors that affect whether behavior follows from attitudes. Attitudes follow behavior. People do seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. They either alter the attitudes or the behavior, or the develop a rationalization for the discrepancy. And also attitudes predict future behavior. 3. What are the major job attitudes? In what ways are these attitudes alike? What is unique about each? * Jab Satisfaction: a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. * Job Involvement: measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. High levels of both job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to organizational citizenship and job performance. High job involvement is also related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates. * Organizational Commitment: an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to remain a member. Employees who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied, because they have a sense of organizational loyalty. On the other hand, employees who are not committed, who feel less loyal to organization, will tend to show lower levels of attendance at work across the board. * Perceived Organizational Support: the degree to which employees believe the organization value their contribution and cares about their well-being. People perceive their organization as supportive when rewords are deemed fair, when employees have a voice in decisions, and when they see their supervisors as supportive. * Employee Engagement: an individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work she does. Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company; disengaged employees have essentially checked out – putting time but not energy attention into their work. 4. How do we measure job satisfaction?
Two approached are popular. The single global rating is a response to one question, such as “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?” Respondents circle a number between 1 and 5 on a scale from “highly satisfied” to “highly dissatisfied.” The second method, the summation of job facets, I more sophisticated. It identifies key elements in a job tunities, and relationships with co-workers. Respondents rate these on a standardized scale, and researchers add the ratings to create an overall job satisfaction score. But the best explanation is that the concept of job satisfaction is so board a single question captures its essence. The summation of job facets may also leave out some important data. Using both methods is very helpful. 5. What causes job satisfaction? For most people, is pay or the work itself more important? People have typically been more satisfied with their jobs overall, with the work itself, and with their supervisors and co-workers than they have been with their pay and with promotion opportunities. 6. What outcomes does job satisfaction influence? What implications does this have for management? Interesting jobs that provide training, a variety, independence, and control satisfy most employees. There is also a strong correspondence between how well people enjoy the social context of their workplace and how satisfied they are overall. Interdependence, feedback, social support, and interaction with co-workers outsides the workplace are strongly related to job satisfaction even after accounting for characteristics of the work itself. Money does motivate people, but what motivates us is not necessarily the same as what makes us happy. Job satisfaction is not just about job conditions. Personality also plays a role. Research has shown that people who have positive core self-evaluations – who believes in their inner worth and basis competence – are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations Not only do they see their work as more fulfilling and challenging, they are more likely to gravitate toward challenging jobs in the first place.