Before we go in details of low involvement theory of Colgate toothpaste lets first see what this company do or manufactures and from where this consumer product giant begins. The Colgate Palmolive is the fastest growing organization of consumer products manufacturing. Consumer products such as Soap and Other Detergent, Dog and Cat Food, Polish and Other Sanitation Goods, Toilet Preparation, , Electric House wares and Household Fan Manufacturing; Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing & All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing. Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed.
Colgate was founded in the United States in 1806 and for the first 100 years, its business focus was only there. However, in the very early 1900's, the Company began a very aggressive expansion program that led to the establishment of Colgate operations throughout the world. Today, Colgate-Palmolive is a $9 billion company, marketing its products in over 200 countries and territories under such internationally recognized brand names as Colgate, Palmolive, Ajax, Fab, and Mennen as well as Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet. Colgate Total is considered the greatest evolution in toothpaste since the introduction of fluoride. This highly effective formula, containing fluoride and the antimicrobial ingredient, Triclosan, has been demonstrated clinically to help prevent gingivitis, plaque, cavities and tartar. And, its unique patented formula, containing the co-polymer, Gantrez, continues to be active between brushings. It continues to work fighting plaque, gingivitis, tartar and cavities after you stop brushing, even if you eat or drink. No other toothpaste manufactured in the US contains Triclosan or has been cleared to make claims for gingivitis and plaque reduction. Since the announcement of the FDA clearance of Colgate Total on July 14, 1997, retailers have expressed unprecedented enthusiasm and interest. Involvement can be defined as the extent to which consumers are involved in the advertising they see and hear and the products and services that they buy. (Barry 1987, p.252)
Involvement can be defined as the extent to which consumers are involved in the advertising they see and hear and the products and services that they buy.
2.2 High vs. Low Involvement:-
High involvement means that the consumer has a high interest in a product, medium, or message. Advertising targeted to highly involved consumers will include information on the product or service. Examples of high involvement products are cars, land, house, shares etc. In contrast, Low involvement means that the information about a product or service is rather insignificant and does not interest the consumer; hence advertisement for these categories focuses on simple slogans, and impressive images. Following is the explanation and background of Low Involvement theory.
3.1 LOW INVOLVEMENT HIERARCHY:-
Before low-involvement theory, it was a prevalent idea that advertising is considered as a force that must move people up a series of steps from cognitive process to purchasing behavior through attitude change. Ultimate consumers do not switch from disinterested individuals to convinced purchasers in one instantaneous step. But, they approach the ultimate decision through a process or series of steps in which the actual purchase is. The elements of the Hierarchy of Effects and their variables are:
Cognition: variables of this element include attention, awareness, comprehension, and learning. Affect: variables comprise of...
References: Krugman, H. E. (1962), "An Application of Learning Theory to TV Copy Testing," Public Opinion Quarterly, p. 626-634
(1966-67), "The Measurement of Advertising without Involvement," Public Opinion Quarterly, p. 585-96
Preston, I. L. (1970), "A Reinterpretation of the Meaning of Involvement in Krugman 's Models of Advertising Communication," Journalism Quarterly, p. 287-95
Rothschild, M. L. (1979), "Advertising strategies for high and low involvement situations," in J. C. Maloney and B. Silverman, Attitude Research Plays for High Stakes (Ed.), American Marketing Association; Chicago
Sherif, M. and C. W, Sherif (1971), "Attitude as the Individual 's Own Categories: The Social Judgment-Involvement Approach to Attitude and Attitude Change," in Attitude, Ego Involvement, and Change, p. 105-139
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