Paguia, Jayvee Eric L.
March 11, 2013
Digest for Philosophy
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Chapters 1 to 4)
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains;
He who believes himself the master of others does not escape being more of a slave than they; For by recovering its liberty by means of the same right that stole it, either the populace is justified in getting back or else those who took it away were not justified in their actions; But the social order is a sacred right which serves as a foundation for all other rights; Family is most ancient of all societies and the only natural one; As long as the father is needed by the child the father should take care of them but when the need ceases, the natural bond is also dissolved; If the father and the child are both freed from their responsibilities, they will all return equally to independence; If they remain united this is not natural but only voluntary, and the family maintains itself only by means of convention; The family is, so to speak, the prototype of political societies; the leader is the image of the father, the populace is the image of the children, and, since all are born equal and free, none give up their liberty except for their utility; Grotius denies that all human power is established for the benefit of the governed, citing slavery as an example; According to Grotius, it is therefore doubtful whether the human race belongs to a hundred men, or whether these hundred men belong to the human race; According to Philo, Caligula reasoned thus, concluding quite properly from this analogy that kings were gods, or that the peoples were beasts; Aristotle, before all others, had also said that men are by no means equal by nature, but that some were born for slavery and others for domination; Every man born in slavery is born for slavery and nothing is more certain; Force has produced the first slaves; their cowardice perpetuated them; The strongest is never strong enough to be master all the time, unless he transforms force into right and obedience into duty; As soon as one can disobey with impunity, one can do so legitimately, and since the strongest is always right, the only thing to do is to make oneself the strongest; This sum of forces cannot come into being without the cooperation of many; The clauses of this contract are so determined by the nature of the act that the least modification renders them vain and ineffectual; These clauses, properly understood, are all reducible to a single one, namely the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the entire community; Since the alienation is made without reservation, the union is as perfect as possible, and no associate has anything further to demand; When the social compact is violated each person then regains his first rights and resumes his natural liberty while losing the conventional liberty for which he renounced it; Albert Camus (The Myth of Sisyphus)
The gods had condemned Sisyphus to ceaselessly rolling a rock to the top of a mountain whence the stone would fall back of its own weight; If one believes Homer, Sisyphus was wisest and most prudent of mortals and according to another tradition, however, he was disposed to practice the profession of highwayman; Opinions differ as to the reasons why he became the futile laborer of the underworld; To begin with, he is accused of certain levity in regard to the Gods; Homer tells us that Sisyphus had put Death in chains
He dispatched the god of war, who liberated Death from the hands of her conqueror; He wanted to test his wife’s love so he ordered her to cast his unburied body into the middle of the public square; He is much through to his passions as through his torture;
His scorn of the Gods, his hatred of death and his passion for life won him that unspeakable penalty in which the whole being is exerted toward accomplishing nothing; Myths are made for the imagination to breathe life into them; If this...
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