Globalization in China and India
Globalization refers to “worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, human labor, finance capital, information, infectious diseases, and trade goods” (Haviland, Prins, Walrath & McBride, 2008, p.19). Along with the movements of these products and peoples comes the traveling of ideas and beliefs also. The world seems to have become smaller due to the technological innovations in communication, travel, and availability of information. This interconnectedness between nations has especially allowed for modern nations such as the United States to have great influence on native non-Western countries. It has allowed for transformation not only in the economy of such societies but also has brought about changes in their cultures and values.
Economic reforms in China that opened up its society to globalization began in 1978 with the process of Reform and Opening up. This was the beginning of industrial civilization, cultural modernization, and social transformation (Keping, 2008). Economic growth has since been present for China. Poverty has been reduced but income inequality has increased. Prior to the economic reforms Chinese economy was worse compared to other Southeast Asian countries (Wikipedia, Chinese Economic Reform). Culturally China today is a combination of tradition and modern culture. Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world. Customs and traditions are different depending on where you are in the country. Most Chinese people practice Confucianism or Taoism (Wikipedia, Chinese Culture). In China’s urban cities today you will find tall buildings, advanced technology, and its resident living and dressing similar as those in the US or Europe, while in some of the villages people still live simply and traditionally, celebrating ancient festivals and practicing the traditional arts (Keping, 2008). India is another great example of a country that has been greatly impacted by globalization. It is a nation that is rich in culture and heritage. Friedman (2011) in his documentary says it is “an ancient civilization where people’s way of lives have remained unchanged” that is until the past few decades. India itself cannot be summed up into one type of society or culture. Religion is an important part of their culture. Indians practice many religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, and many more. In addition, many languages and dialects are spoken by its people (Wikipedia, Culture of India, 2014). Because it was a British colony for long period of time, however, many middle class citizens speak English fluently (Friedman, 2011). Another tradition practiced in India for generations is its joint family system, wherein a household is composed extended family members such as the adult children’s spouses and their children. Arranged marriages for centuries have been the norm. Because of its diverse culture, Indians celebrate a variety of festivals and holidays. The citizens eat a variety of traditional cuisine and have multiple traditional clothing based on which part of the country they are from (Wikipedia, Culture of India, 2014). It was in the early 1990’s that Globalization wave hit India when new economic reforms opened up the country to the world market. This is sometimes referred to as the economic liberalization in India. Prior to this, the belief was that by practicing self-reliance or isolation from the world, colonial exploitation could be avoided (Wikipedia, Economic Liberalization in India). Urban development in its major cities is evidenced by the tall and modern buildings, presence of billion dollar companies, and millions of jobs that has made its way in the 21st century from big American corporations as seen in the example of Bangalore (Friedman, 2011). Western companies have set up their call centers all over the country due to the large amount of eager young English-speaking...
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