Globalization, Cooperatives and Credit Groups

Topics: Non-governmental organization, Oxfam, Cooperative Pages: 7 (2189 words) Published: June 19, 2013
Name: Rapetswa K.G
Student no.: 46613803
DVA160-1: Assignment no.04
Topic: Non-governmental organizations, credit groups and cooperatives Due date: 16 September 2013

Table of contentsPage No.

1. Introduction 1
2. Types of non-governmental organizations1
2.1. NGO type by level of orientation1-2
2.2. NGO type by level of cooperation2
3. Cooperatives and credit groups2-3
3.1. Developmental roles of cooperatives3-4
3.2. Developmental roles of credit groups4-5
3.3. Functions of cooperatives5
3.4. Functions of credit groups5-6
4. Conclusion6
5. Bibliography6-7

1. INTRODUCTION
In my assignment I will explain various types of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the levels at which they operate. I am going to discuss cooperatives and credit groups basing my arguments on their developmental roles and functions. I will also give my own point of view on NGOs, cooperatives and credit groups. Professor Willets defined a non-governmental organization as "an independent voluntary association of people acting together on a continuous basis, for some common purpose, other than achieving government office, making money or illegal activities". More broadly, Willets sees NGOs as part of a politicodemocratic process, insofar as they engage in national and international dialogues on social direction or, as he puts it, in ' a social expression of values'. 2. TYPES OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

William, C. (1991) pointed out that NGO types can be understood by their orientation level and level of cooperation. Sushant (2010) argued that the NGOs can be classified into various types on the basis of different factors like orientation and cooperation. 2.1. NGO type by level of orientation

"NGO type by orientation can be grouped into charitable orientation, service orientation, participatory orientation and empowering orientation" (Sushant, 2010). Lawry (2009:29-30) listed the orientation level type as follows: ·Charitable Orientation often involves a top-down partenalistic efford and little participation by the beneficiaries. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor. Examples include Greenpeace. ·Service Orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning and education services which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and receiving the service. ·Participation Orientation is characterised by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation and in receiving the service. ·Empowering Orientation aims to help the poor people develop a clearer understanding of social, political and economic factors affecting their own potential power to control their lives. There is a maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. 2.2. NGO type by level of cooperation

"NGO type by cooperation can be grouped into community-based organizations (CBOs), Citywide organizations, National NGOs and International NGOs" (Sushant, 2010). Lawry (2009:29-30) listed the NGO type by level of cooperation as follows ·Community-based organizations arise out of people's initiatives. They can be responsible for raising the consciousness of urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services and providing such services. ·Citywide organizations include organizations such as chamber of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethic or education groups and associations of community organizations. Some exist for other purposes and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor. ·National NGOs include organizations such as Red Cross, YMCAs/ YWCAs, professional organizations, etc. Some of these have state and cuty branches and assist the local NGOs. ·...

Bibliography: 2.1. NGO type by level of orientation
"NGO type by orientation can be grouped into charitable orientation, service orientation, participatory orientation and empowering orientation" (Sushant, 2010)
2.2. NGO type by level of cooperation
"NGO type by cooperation can be grouped into community-based organizations (CBOs), Citywide organizations, National NGOs and International NGOs" (Sushant, 2010)
3.1. Developmental roles of cooperatives
Gertler (2001) stated that "cooperatives are community-based, rooted in democracy, flexible and have participatory involvement, which makes them well suited for economic development"
· Gertler, M. (2001): Rural Cooperatives and Sustainable Development, Saskatoon. SK: Centre for the Study of Cooperatives, University of Saskatoon.
· Gibson, R. (2005):The Role of Cooperatives in Community Economic Development, RDI Working Paper # 2003-3
· Henehan, B
· Huppi, M. & Feder, G. (1990):The Role of Groups and Credit Cooperatives in Rural Lending, WorldBank Res Obs, SC2:187-204
· Laidlaw, L
· Levin, M. (2002):The Promotion of Cooperatives,ILO Cooperative branch at www.ica.coop.europe/ra/2002/speech.
· McLeod, A. (December 2006):Types of Cooperatives: Northwest Cooperatives Development Center.
· Somavia, J. (2002):JLO Recommendations No 193 on Cooperatives, at www.ica.coop.europe.ra/2002/speech.
· Sushant (August 30, 2010): Types of NGOs.
· William, C. :Non-Governemntal Initiatives in ADB, The urban poor and basic infrastructure services in Sia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank, Mania, 1991.
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