Nowadays migration is getting to be one of the dominant characteristics of the modern world since at the present moment that movement of people and migration of citizens from one country to another become a norm. Not surprisingly that such unparallel and extremely high level of migration results in substantial demographic, ethnical and socio-cultural changes in many countries of the world. In this respect, it is worthy of mention that such a situation with the migration is the result of the recent trend in the world economy which is characterized by processes which are generally called globalization. The process of globalization is overwhelming and involves practically all countries of the world with rare exceptions which are traditionally rogue-states like Northern Korea, or other countries that stand on positions of isolation from the rest of the world. Consequently, a great majority of countries are involved in this process and tend to develop international relations on all levels, including cultural, political and especially economic, since globalization is primarily economic phenomenon that resulted in globalization of international relations on all other levels. In such a situation, it is quite natural that the process of migration is also affected dramatically by globalization. On the other hand, it is necessary to underline that, being a relatively new phenomenon, globalization is an extremely controversial process. Since its beginning, which is traditionally dated back to 1980s, there have been arguments concerning the effect the globalization may have on different countries. Such continues now and they have probably become even more serious and more controversial. However, there is a viewpoint, according to which globalization is rather positive phenomenon. On the other hand, there is a contrary belief that it is an extremely negative process. Naturally, such a controversial interpretation of globalization makes migration also quite contradictive. In fact, it is really important to find out what is the real effect of migration on all countries involved in the process which of them benefit from it and which lose, if any, or else what is the future of migration in the context of globalization. Globalization as the defining factor of migration
In order to understand all current trends in the process of migration, it is necessary to briefly discuss the role of globalization in this process and its general effect. In actuality, globalization is considered to get started in 1980s. It was the result of a rapid progress of science and technologies accompanied with a rapid development of some countries that have never been among the world economic leaders before. Later, in 1990 this process became more obvious and globalization has become really global. The development of informational technologies, Internet and telecommunications made a particularly significant contribution to this process. As a result nowadays there are many international organizations, such as the World Trade Organization, as well as there are a lot of regional organizations, all of them aiming at pedaling the process of globalization and faster development of international economic cooperation between countries. In such a situation geographical boundaries between countries tend to disappear and, consequently, it is supposed that there will be fewer obstacles on the way of migrants. In this respect, it is worthy of mention that traditionally population movements “have taken place side by side with the development of contacts and flows between different societies and cultures” (Khor 2001:274). This is why the essence of globalization seems to contribute to elimination of barriers between countries and increase of the level of contacts and flows between different countries worldwide. Speaking about the essence of globalization in details, it should be said that globalization is characterized by economic specialization of different...
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