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Globalization

By allegramovenpick Feb 27, 2013 1160 Words
Causes of Globalization
While it is truethat state ventures (or
adventures) have at times driven the
process, e.g. the colonial conquests, the
globalization process has largely reflected
market forces, specifically, the
exploitation by large and smaller businesses
in the world of benefits from trade in
commodities, goods, services, capital, and
even labor, and of opportunities for new
investments and markets.
The process of global economic integration
was perpetrated at the behest of World
War II, when the leaders of Britain and the
US helped establishing the World Bank and
International Monetary Fund in 1944 to
promote a liberal, capitalist world to
counter the shadows of Socialism and
Marxism.
The loans are granted by IMF and WB on
the condition that the borrowing country
will reduce the state's role in the economy,
lower barriers to imports, remove
restrictions on foreign investment,
eliminate subsidies for local industries,
reduce spending for social welfare, cut
wages, devalue the currency, and emphasize
production for export rather than for local
consumption. Such conditions imposed laid
the basic foundation to open economies to
steer the mechanism of economic
integration giving birth to the World Trade
Organization.
By mid 1950s Pakistan had become a
favorite candidate for receiving the
benefits pledged by President Truman,
having joined the network of international
defense treaties with the United States. It
marked the beginning of an enduring trend
in Pakistan to follow every one of the
strategies of development devised
successively in Washington and promoted
globally. Pakistan's own Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq
called this trend the pursuit of
"development fashions" and listed it among
his "seven sins of economic planners."
Before development theory and practice
could be redesigned in any significant way
to address the lingering issue of social
justice it was literally hijacked to serve the
agenda of a more aggressively mobile global
capital which aimed at a deeper integration
of all national economies into the
structures and ideological framework of
neo-liberal globalization. Foreign debt is the
main lever used by donor countries and
multilateral aid organizations to break
resistance to the imposition of external
economic agendas and development policies.
Claimed Benefits of Globalization
World has discovered new trade routes and
improved the technology of transport to
obtain the benefits from the process of
openness.
Openness to foreign direct investment can
contribute to economic growth by
stimulating domestic capital formation and
improving efficiency and productivity, as a
result of greater access to new
technologies.
Increased competition and access to the
domestic financial system by foreign banks
may improve the effectiveness of the
intermediation process between savers and
borrowers, thereby lowering markup rates
in banking, as well as the cost of
investment, and again raising growth rates.
Financial openness helps to lessen
asymmetric information problems and to
reduce the fixed costs associated with
small-scale lending; it can enhance the
opportunities for the poor to access the
formal financial system.
It is widely accepted that openness has
long been seen as important element of
good economic policy and trade
liberalization as necessary step for
achieving it.
Trade liberalization process often works as
an instrument to combat poverty: it usually
tends to increase not only incomes but also
provide some additional resources in order
to overcome the issue of poverty.
Globalization or trade liberalization in
general is being found to increase economic
opportunities for consumers and producers
and to raise earnings for workforce and
that under grater openness to trade,
resources tend to be reallocated towards
productive activities and away from less
efficient activities.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is well
attracted by openness to the free flow of
capital, which then stimulates domestic
investment and contributes to employment
generation and economic growth. Financial
openness also helps to increase the depth
and breadth of domestic financial markets,
leading to increased efficiency in financial
markets through lower costs and improved
resource allocation.
The Consequences of Globalization
Mainly, the general views about
globalization can be categorized into four
main perspectives that are economic,
technological, development, and societal
respectively.
The Economic Perspective: of
globalization is the growth of world trade
as a proportion of output (the ratio of
world imports to gross world product, GWP,
has grown from some 7% in 1938 to about
10% in 1970 to over 18% in 1996). It is
reflected in the explosion of foreign direct
investment (FDI): FDI in developing
countries has increased from $2.2 billion in
1970 to $154 billion in 1997. It has resulted
also in national capital markets becoming
increasingly integrated, to the point where
some $1.3 trillion per day crosses the
foreign exchange markets of the world, of
which less than 2% is directly attributable
to trade transactions.
The Technological Perspective: involves
Information Communication Technology
(ICT) what explains this globalization? It
certainly lies in the development of
technology. The costs of transport, of
travel, and above all the costs of
communicating information have fallen
dramatically in the postwar period, almost
entirely because of the progress of
technology
The Development Perspective: is the most
controversial and important of all. It
touches the heart of dichotomy which
today globalization phenomenon faces. It
tries to find the clues of the increasing
divide between the rich and the poor, the
existing cleavage between the ICT haves
and have-nots, under the umbrella of one
world concept of integrated markets and
capital flows. Above all it challenges the
greatest protagonists of globalization, the
global institutions of World Bank, IMF, and
even WTO one hand. One the other it has
created a massive wave of antagonists
threatening the industrial nations through
anti-globalization relays, protests, and
strikes.
The Societal Perspective: focuses on
some key factors which have become pivotal
to ensure the longevity of success of
developed nations and that are their
sensitivity to the community, cultural
norms, and environmental care. This
includes the condition of human rights,
women empowerment, gender sensitization,
civic education, status of women in the
society, political status becoming more
democratic, freedom of speech, rule of law,
equal access to resources and level of
education.
Globalization is also a key to future
environmental changes. Decisions made by
the private sector, in its search for
comparative advantages, are increasingly
affecting where and how people live and
work. Globalization is having a major impact
on population migration, population
distribution, particularly through
accelerating urbanization trends, and
growth of mega-cities. These population
changes are in turn impacting on security,
governance, poverty, health and
environmental factors
Globalization research raises many
questions with respect to contemporary
forms of power--economic, political,
cultural--as well as strategies to challenge
power and promote alternatives. To what
extent do globalization processes produce
global convergence, for example, towards
economic insecurity? Do local conditions
produce "varieties of globalization" at local
levels? Are states overwhelmed by
corporate power? To what extent do states
shape the new global economy? With
respect to questions of resistance, in what
ways do globalization processes facilitate
or constrain new opportunities for
collective action? In the age of
transnational corporate institutions.

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