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Globalisation

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TABLE OF CONTENT

|S. NO. |TOPIC |PAGE NO. |
|1 |INTRODUCTION |2 |
|2 |ANTI-GLOBALISATION |2 |
|3 |EFFECT ON EMPLOYMENT |3 |
|4 |EFFECTS ON CHILD LABOUR |3 |
|5 |EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT |4 |
|6 |EFFECTS ON SOCIETY |5 |
|7 |PEACE DUE TO GLOBALISATION |5 |
|8 |CONCLUSION |5 |
|9 |REFERENCES |6 |

GLOBALIZATION

1. INTRODUCTION

Globalization is the “process enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally, largely as a result of deregulation and improved communications”(Simon, 2002). Globalisation is the most fascinated concept in the social science(Hirst and Thompson, 1999). It can be defined as the increased social and economic growth of the countries. The concept of globalisation is the global symbol for the country, it is a essential element for the countries economy as the business leaders are ready to face their companies for globalisation(Lechner and Boli, 2004). Globalisation helps the under developing countries to expose themselves to the wide range of opportunities and new resources internationally, which includes flow of goods across the countries. The trade between the nations helps the developing country to grow, shares the knowledge and cultural transformation(Tešić, 2012). Globalisation helps the developing countries to improve the transportation system and the communication system, using a satellite they can view the worlds event on a single frame. Globalisation is a key thing for imports and exports of goods, inflow and outflow of incomes between the nations(Wolf, 2004).

2. ANTI-GLOBALISATION

There are some developing countries, which has a hatred feeling towards globalisation which led to a movement called anti- globalisation. Globalisation in some developing countries has become a problem as there is a sudden change in education system (students get uneducated), taxes and social policies. Globalisation in the developing countries may cause fluctuations in the national economy, spending money on the public goods by raising taxes, livelihood of a peasant farmer is destroyed, wages were lowered because the standard of the labour was decreased, economic insecurity increased across the nation(Lechner and Boli, 2004). It generates crisis due to global financial market which lead to heavy cost of goods in the under developing economies(Wolf, 2004). It leads to the formal resignation of the democratic government in to the favour of the private corporation. The ideology of the government in the less developed country Is severe due to globalisation. The increase in the trade flow and FDI(foreign direct investment) led to income inequality in the developed country and the developing country. There may be so many changes in government due to globalisation, government may change from one party to other party due to the government is accepting large cash flow that leads the down fall of small scale industries, starting point for child labour, pollution, social activities, change in culture, income levels decreased(Ha, 2012).

3. EFFECTS ON EMPLOYMENT

The effect of globalisation leads to the trade route between the nations and FDI in the developing country. Due to investment of developed country in the less developed country, so many big industries are introduced in the nation, which is a good cause for the nation as there may so many chances for employment. Good cause of globalisation in the less developed country due to industrialisation. But there is no effect on employment on the raw material exported due to increase of the developed country workers in that part, but in the manufacturing unit there are so many chances of employment(Kaya, 2010). Globalisation of the world economy came to view that significant influence of industrialisation on developing countries. So there is a need of understanding the movement of globalisation on the developing countries to get the actual details of industrialisation.

4. EFFECTS ON CHILD LABOUR

Due to globalisation the penetration of FDI in to the developing countries is high. The trade flow between the nations are also high, this is good part for the developing nation as the economy of the nation raises. But there is a lot of chances for child labour and women employment. Depending upon the GDP’s we can differentiate the rich and the poor countries where the involvement of child labour can be found, if the GDP of the nation is high there the involvement of the child labour is low. The developing countries with high GDP has an involvement of high child labour(Dagdemir and Acaroglu, 2010). The high penetration of FDI and trade flow the involvement of child labour increases and increases to the very high extent. If the income level of the middleclass family is less than the 5000USD, the net effect on the globalisation is negative. When the income of the middle class family is more than the 5000USD then the effect on globalisation is positive. This show that the positive affect of globalization along with increasing income on child labour involvement does not display continuity. The factors increasing child labour supply in developing countries has become more effective as a result of integration with global economy. Economic growth alone is not sufficient thing to struggle with child labour problem in developing countries. The governments should show interest on some factors to the labour such as income distribution and poverty. Increased importance should be given to regulate labour market conditions in the case of increased involvement of child labours.

1. WOMEN EMPLOYMENT

As there are so many company introduced by a developed country in the developing countries, they need a lot of workers. The developing countries has lot of middle class families, so due to earning the women will find a job in the newly introduced companies. In a developing countries most of the womens work when the nation is on the effect of globalisation, they are not professionally trained to that work, womens are given jobs for a long shift with very low wages. So due to this there may be lot of mental tensions in the family.

5. EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT (POLLUTION)

Globalisation encouraged the developed countries in increasing production, which uses the lot of natural resources of the developing country and effects the environment. Pollution is a harmful effect in globalisation, as it will lead to the death of the persons. The introduction of industries under the effect of globalisation will pollute the air and water with harmful gases and chemicals. These foreign companies developed their base in developing countries as they found the cost of labour is low and high use natural resources where the resources availability is high. This led to the massive industrial revolution in the developing countries which caused great damage to the environment.(Stiglitz, 2002)

1. WATER POLLUTION

The effect of globalisation, so many foreign companies are introduced In the developing country. There may be so many chemical industries are introduced, the chemicals which is released from the industries is dumped into water which leads to contamination of water and the water is used by the people, which results in water borne disease(Pologeorgis and Overbaugh, 2011).

2. DEFORESTRATION AND LAND POLLUTION

For introducing new industries by the foreign countries in the developing countries under the effect of globalisation, they need a large space to built a company for a low cost. The industries are built in the forest area by cutting down the trees, which is a very harmful effect for the environment as there may be so many effect like global warming, increase of CO2 in the air, short fall of rain, soil erosion and land degradation(Stiglitz, 2002).

The industries which are using plastic for manufacturing is very harmful for the land as it a non bio-degradable substances.

3. AIR POLLUTION

Due to globalisation, the gases released from the industries are mixed up with air which to a breathing problem because of the gases released there may be effect on ozone layer and may cause depletion in ozone layer. This is very harmful effect for environment(Pologeorgis and Overbaugh, 2011).

6. EFFECTS ON SOCIETY

Due to globalisation, there are so many changes in the developing countries like social life style and exchange of culture. The rapid change in society is due to the adoption of western culture in the life style and exchange of culture from developed countries. Things became more sophisticated than the older days. These sudden changes lead to change of life style in the developing country. This disturbs the original culture of the country, example : India, whose culture is a traditional culture but under the globalisation the exchange of culture was done. Due to this the no people are following the old culture(Ghosh, 2011).

7. PEACE DUE TO GLOBALISATION

Historically the nature of international system started to change when globalisation came into existence. Because of globalisation, the international exposure of the people is recognised. The net effect of globalisation is positive and favourable in creating the co existence between the two nations. Globalization plays a important role in taking some of the important decisions by the leaders. Globalization not only changes the thinking of a leader but helps to take decisions on market trends, socio economic factors and many more in taking decisions which gives way for peaceful disposition of power(Choi, 2010).

8. CONCLUSION

Thus we can conclude that globalisation has both negative and positive effects on developing country. There are so many positive effect on the developing country but the effect was very low. As we analysed the above context, the globalisation has a negative effect also but it is a step forward than the positive effect. There are so many harmful effect on globalisation like pollution, environment effect, child labour, anti social activities, health and culture, these effects says that the globalisation has done more harm than good especially in the developing countries.

9. REFERENCES

Choi, S.-W., 2010. Beyond Kantian Liberalism Peace through Globalization? Conflict Management and Peace Science 27, 272–295.

Dagdemir, O., Acaroglu, H., 2010. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries. Business & Economic Horizons 2, 37–47.
Ghosh, B., 2011. Cultural Changes and Challenges in the Era of Globalization The Case of India. Journal of Developing Societies 27, 153–175.

Ha, E., 2012. Globalization, Government Ideology, and Income Inequality in Developing Countries. Journal of Politics 74, 541–557.

Hirst, P.Q., Thompson, G., 1999. Globalization in question : the international economy and the possibilities of governance. Polity Press, Cambridge, En.

Kaya, Y., 2010. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003. Social Forces 88, 1153–1182.

Lechner, F., Boli, J., 2004. The globalization reader. Blackwell Pub., Malden, MA.

Pologeorgis, N., Overbaugh, S., 2011. Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects of Globalization on the Transitional Economies of Eastern and Central Europe. International Journal of Business & Economics Perspectives 6, 55–69.

Simon, J., 2002. What is globalisation? [WWW Document]. the Guardian.URL http://www.guardian.co.uk

Stiglitz, J.E., 2002. Globalization and its discontents. W.W. Norton, New York.

Tešić, J., 2012. Measuring Globalization in the Context of Transition Process - the Case of Western Balkan Countries. Economic Review: Journal of Economics & Business / Ekonomska Revija: Casopis za Ekonomiju i Biznis 10, 33–46.

Wolf, M., 2004. Why globalization works. Yale University Press, New Haven.

References: Choi, S.-W., 2010. Beyond Kantian Liberalism Peace through Globalization? Conflict Management and Peace Science 27, 272–295. Dagdemir, O., Acaroglu, H., 2010. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries. Business & Economic Horizons 2, 37–47. Ghosh, B., 2011. Cultural Changes and Challenges in the Era of Globalization The Case of India. Journal of Developing Societies 27, 153–175. Ha, E., 2012. Globalization, Government Ideology, and Income Inequality in Developing Countries. Journal of Politics 74, 541–557. Hirst, P.Q., Thompson, G., 1999. Globalization in question : the international economy and the possibilities of governance. Polity Press, Cambridge, En. Kaya, Y., 2010. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003. Social Forces 88, 1153–1182. Lechner, F., Boli, J., 2004. The globalization reader. Blackwell Pub., Malden, MA. Pologeorgis, N., Overbaugh, S., 2011. Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects of Globalization on the Transitional Economies of Eastern and Central Europe. International Journal of Business & Economics Perspectives 6, 55–69. Simon, J., 2002. What is globalisation? [WWW Document]. the Guardian.URL http://www.guardian.co.uk Stiglitz, J.E., 2002 Tešić, J., 2012. Measuring Globalization in the Context of Transition Process - the Case of Western Balkan Countries. Economic Review: Journal of Economics & Business / Ekonomska Revija: Casopis za Ekonomiju i Biznis 10, 33–46. Wolf, M., 2004. Why globalization works. Yale University Press, New Haven.

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