Global Trade in Agriculture
Essay Topic: Modern land reform policies, in which large tracts of fertile farmland are parcelled out to smallholders, are one of the best ways of ensuring that diverse agricultural activities meet with the requirements of the domestic population. However, countries such as Japan, South Korea and China today are quick to conduct separate negotiations with politicians of these emerging countries to privatize this fertile farmland, instead of continuing with the land reform policies. This is being done in the belief that large farmland production will result in economies of scale and thereby lead to even lower global food production costs. What is your opinion on this issue? Discuss.
Land reform, it has been define as any program, especially when undertaken by a national government, involving the redistribution of agricultural land or large agricultural holdings among the landless. Agriculture is known as a mainly activity or mainstay of the majority of the 140 members of the WTO. In low-income countries, up to 80% of people rely on this activity to obtain monthly income and their food for their family. Despite of it, even in middle-income countries there are still about 40% of workforces make a living from agriculture while the sector accounts for only 4% of labour in industrialised countries engage with agriculture activities. From this result, it can be consider that there are still a large number of workforces or family need to dependent on agriculture for survival since the number of developing countries still greater than developed countries or industrialised countries and most of these developing countries are rely on agriculture in their countries export to achieve GDP.
Today, modern land reform policies have been implementing in those countries which are discharged into third world countries and developing countries. The main purpose of the policies is to ensure that large tracts of fertile farmland are parcelled out to smallholders so that diverse agricultural activities can be perform simultaneously in order to meet with the requirements of the domestic population.
However, today for countries such as Japan, South Korea and China do not endorse these policies; they quickly conduct separate negotiations with politicians of these emerging countries to try in another way of to use those land. By the supporting of regulation of WTO, they suggest that the government of the emerging countries should privatize this fertile farmland, instead of continuing with the land reform policies. This is being done in the belief that large farmland production will result in economies of scale and thereby lead to even lower global food production costs.
According to Brian Halweil, a research associate at the non-governmental Worldwatch Institute, the WTO agreements will make the situation of extending the marginalisation of small farmers as big agricultural corporations pit farmers in the US, for example, against farmers in Latin America or South Africa to the global level such as countries in Asia or Africa the place where most of the developing countries were located. (Mutume, 2002)
The fact is that the United States is the world’s biggest exporter of agricultural products which it assist 12% of the global total. Some of these exports are to countries outside the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) zone of the United States, Canada and Mexico. At least 40% are destined for Asia alone. Despite of that, if country like China, Japan and South Korea also try to carry out the same action like U.S , it will led the situation of small farmers or the low and middle countries even worse. (Mutume, 2002)
In developing countries, small farmers are often unsupported by governments because their governments do not have the money to do so, or are limited by WTO regulations. Due to this problem, their crops or products have to produce in a higher cost compare with those who are heavily...
References: 2. Prasenjit Bose, WTO Declaration: A Bad Deal for Developing Countries, 2005
3. Debi Barker, WTO Agreement on Agriculture: Threat to Food Security and Sustainability, 2012
4. Deborah James, Food Security, Farming, and the WTO and CAFTA, 2011
5. Unknown, Bad Effects of the WTO, 2009
6. Aurelie Walker, The Guardians: The WTO has failed developing Nations, 2011
7. Peter M. Rosset, Policy Brief No.4: The Multiple Functions and Benefits of Small Farm Agriculture, 1999
8. Sian Lewis, International Institute for Environment and Development, 2011
9. Kirk Johnson, the New York Times, Small Farmers Creating a New Business Model as Agriculture Goes Local, 2012
10. Taylor Mcneil, Price Increases Caused by US Bio Fuel Mandate Hurts Poor Countries, 2012
11. Peter Rosset and Vandana Shiva, Ecologist: Small scale farming: A global perspective, 2000
12. Krista Daniszewski, Bigger isn 't always better—the health benefits of small-scale, local farms, 2011
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