Table of Contents
Global Positioning Systems
GPS works like this:
Applications of Global Positioning Systems
GPS Military Perspective
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GPS for GIS
Geographic Information Systems
What is a GIS?
How does a GIS work?
Data integration .
GIS Military Perspective
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I am especially grateful to our instructor Mr. Theuri, for providing a basis in which we could research and write our paper. I¡¦m also grateful to the following who tested this work as it was being written. Their comments and suggestions have been invaluable: Elkanah Walela
We thank LF Courier who supervised the printing and binding of this text. Barbara Khakasa designed the imaginative artwork on the cover page, together with the line drawings. Finally I would like to thank my own fellow students, for whom and with whom the text was presented to. Their candid evaluation of our work, and their refusal to accept anything less than perfect clarity in explanation have been driving forces behind the creation of my topic, GPS & GIS Military Perspective. Global Positioning Systems
The Global Positioning System is a constellation of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. The location accuracy is anywhere from 1 to 100 meters depending on the type of equipment used. The GPS is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, but is available for general use around the world. GPS works like this:
24 GPS satellites, 21 active, 3 spare are in orbit at 20,200 kilometers above the Earth. The satellites are spaced so that from any point on Earth, at least four satellites will be above the horizon X
Each satellite contains a computer, an atomic clock, and a radio. With an understanding of its own orbit and the clock, the satellite continually broadcasts its changing position and time. Once a day, each satellite checks its own sense of time and position with a ground station and makes any minor correction X
On the ground, any GPS receiver contains a computer that calculates its own position by getting time signals from three of the four satellites, using a process called trilateration, which is similar to triangulation. The result is provided in the form of a geographic position, longitude and latitude for most receivers, within 100 meters X
If the receiver is also equipped with a display screen that shows a map, the position can be shown on the map X
If a fourth satellite can be received, the receiver/computer can figure out the altitude as well as the geographic position X
If you are moving, your receiver may also be able to calculate your speed and direction of travel and give you estimated times of arrival to specified destinations X
Some specialized GPS receivers can also store data for use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and map making.
GPS satellites broadcast three different types of data in the primary navigation signals. The first is the almanac which sends coarse time...
References: 1. Berry, J.K. (1993) Beyond Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and Issues in GIS. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books.
2. Bolstad, P. (2005) GPS Fundamentals: A first text on Global Positioning Systems, Second Edition. White Bear Lake, MN: Eider Press, 543 pp.
3. Borough, P.A. and McDonnell, R.A. (1998) Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 327 pp.
4. Chang, K.S. (2005) Introduction to GPS, 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill.
5. Heywood, I., Cornelius, S., and Carver, S. (2006) An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. Prentice Hall. 3rd edition.
6. Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rind, D.W. (2005) Global Positioning Systems and Science. Chichester: Wiley. 2nd edition.
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