It can be generally said that GIS involves or entails a computerized system that deals with data in terms of collection from many sources, efficient digital storage, managing and administering of data which includes integration of various data sets into a common database. It also involves easy and efficient selection and viewing of data in different varieties, conversion of data from one geometrical projection to another, rescaling and other computer maneuvers. Also data’s are analyzed, modeled and finally displayed as end products. e.g Maps, Reports. GIS can be said to be a decision making tool, that deals with the utilization of space organization of these tools and data’s. GIS has the ability to integrate data’s from different sources in order to solve particular spatial problems. GIS is a wonderful tool because it can handle large volumes of information from a variety of sources and combine these information’s into an easy to access system. It supports decision making and provides numerous ways of communications. GIS is versatile in that it is a system of modern hardware’s, software’s data and of course humans who harness all these peripherals to come up with useable and meaningful end product. Due to the methodology of GIS, it has led to new ways of accomplishing many traditional and innovative tasks, thus allowing its usage and application in solving many problems.
Fabiyi (2004) defined GIS as a unique integration of computer hardware, software, peripherals, procedural techniques, organizational structure, people and institution for capturing, manipulating, storing, analyzing, modulating, modeling and displaying geographically referenced data for solving complex human related problems. This definition suggests that GIS is neither the software nor hardware, it neither is the procedure to solve problem, but a good integration of all these components of GIS. It plays five important GIS is a relatively broad term that can refer to a number of different technologies, processes and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to Engineering, Planning, Transport/logistics, Insurance, telecommunications and Businesses. GIS applications can be viewed and explained from three perspectives: I .The application area can be land and resources management, earth natural Environment and human activities. II. The nature of application has been greatly affected by internet; it’s now a virtual global system that offers all sorts of geographical information services. III. it’s a very powerful tool that provides the mechanism for geographical information resource sharing, flow and communication of spatial information and knowledge. The applications of a GIS are vast and continue to grow day by day; more frontiers are being reached; pushing back the frontiers of science. By using GIS, scientists can research changes in the environment; engineers can design road systems; electrical companies can manage their complex networks of power lines; governments can track the uses of land; and fire and police departments can plan emergency routes. Many private businesses have begun to use a GIS to plan and improve their services. Despite the numerous advantages that accrue from the use of GIS technology, the adoption and implementation of the technology in developing countries such as Nigeria still face a lot of impediments. These impediments include, application environment, organizational issues, data exchange standards, legal issues, human resources, lack of awareness of the technology, cost of acquiring the components of GIS and also conservatism. Based on the recent technology in this field, organizations working on technologies application should change their working strategy and develop the system to accommodate the latest technology as far as possible. Some of the major advantages of GIS technology applications that may / can facilitate rapid growth and development in Nigeria are as follows: In this era of...
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