Gibbons v Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun was part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
2nd Bank of the United States
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.
Nicholas Biddle nicknamed "Czar Nicholas I," he was president of the Bank of the United States. He was known for his massive loans as bribes ("Emperor Nick of the Bribery Bank"). Jackson wanted to weaken the Bank and Biddle, so he gradually stopped making deposits, instead stowing his money in his "pet banks." Jackson destroyed the Bank in 1832.
The Whig party was a party that formed for those who opposed Jackson's views. It was created in the 1830s and the 1840s. When Jackson was elected, Clay and Calhoun formed a party for those who opposed Democratic views. The first Whig to become president was Harrison in the 1840 election. Whigs thought that Jackson's views were selfish.
Once shortened to "Republicans", when Andrew Jackson came into power he renamed the party "Democrats". The Jacksonian Democrats were very democratic and were opposed to the Whigs. Jackson was a