GI Outline - Study Guide

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Normal and abnormal changes within the GI system for the elderly
(905) Mouth: gingival retraction, decreased taste buds, decreases sense of smell, decrease volume of saliva, atrophy of gingival tissue; loss of teeth, dentures, difficulty chewing, diminished sense of taste, dry oral mucosa, poor fitting dentures
Esophagus: lower esophageal sphincter pressure decreases, motility decreases; epigastric distress, dysphagia, potential for hiatal hernia and aspiration
ABD wall: thinner and less taut, decreased number and sensitivity of sensory receptors; more visible peristalsis, easier palpation or organs, less sensitivity to surface pain
Stomach: atrophy of gastric mucosa, decreased blood flow; food intolerances, signs of anemia as a result of cobalamin malabsorption, decreased gastric emptying
Small Intestines: slighted decreased secretion of most digestive enzymes and motility; complaints of indigestion, slowed intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Liver: decrease size and lowered in position, decreased protein synthesis, ability to regenerate decreased; easier palpation to lower border extending past costal margin, decreased drug and hormone metabolism
Large Intestine, Anus, Rectum: decreased anal sphincter tone and nerve supply to rectal area, decreased muscular tone and motility, increased transit time, sensation to defecation decreases; fecal incontinence, flatulence, abd distention, relaxed perineal musculature constipation, fecal impaction
Pancreas: pancreatic ducts distended, lipase production decreased, pancreatic reserve impaired; impaired fat absorption, decreased glucose tolerance.
The process of aging changes the functional ability of the GI system, less than any other organ systems. Diet, alcohol and obesity affect organs of the GI separately from aging. Tooth enamel and dentin wear down making teeth susceptible to cavities. Periodnal diasease can leed to loss of teeth. Xerostomia, decreased saliva production, may be associated with

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