HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Chapter 6: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS Sanjib K. Ghosh Professor of Photogrammetry Laval University, Canada Commission VI
6.2 MATHF11ATICAL AND PROCEDURAL CONCEPTS
6.2.1 Fundamentals and Precursors
Abstract: The paper constitutes Chap 6 (analytical methods and instruments concepts and procedures) of the booJ< "History of Photogrammetry" to be published by the ISPRS. Starting with definitions, the fundamentals and precursors, all pre- and post World War II developments are elaborated. This is followed by a broad discussion on more recent advancements, conventional and unconventional. Instrumental developments are discussed with regard to acquisition, processing and presentation of the data. Selected references are appended. Key words: History, Analytical Photogrammetry, Concepts, Procedures, Instruments.
Development of mathematics as a discipline of logic did not exist before about 1000 B.C. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (-350 B.C.) referred to the process of optical projection of images. Leonardo da Vinci explored the disciplines of optics, geometry and mechanics. In 1492 he demonstrated the principles of optical perspectivity (MacLeish 1977), which provides the foundation of photogrammetry even today. Albrecht Durer (14711528) in 1525 constructed samples of mechanical devices to make true perspective drawings of nature and studio scenes as well as for producing stereoscopic drawings (ASPRS 1980). The German astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1600 gave a precise definition of stereoscopy. Aughtread of England in 1574 developed the first slide rule and soon thereafter John Napier (1550-1617) published tables of logarithms and Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) established the concept of metrology and gave the world a desk calculator. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Gottfried von Leibnitz (1646-1716) firmly established the concepts of differential and integral calculus. Concepts of inverse central perspective and space resection of conjugate images were first discussed by J. Henry Lambert (17281777) in his book "Freie Perspective" in 1759. England presented in 1838 the one most important tool used in photogrammetry _ The practice of photogrammetry could be started only after Arago and Niepce announced a "Heliographic Process", based on which Louis J.M. Daguerre (1789-1851) presented to the French Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1837 the photographs which he called "daguerrotypes". The co~m. ng of the term "photogrammetrytf in 1855 by Kersten with its introduction by Meydenbauer in 1867 to international literature, the first German textbook on photogrammetry by Koppe (1889) and Aime Laussedat's classic work on French photogrammetry (1898) are some of the milestones of analytical photogrammetry recorded in history (ISPRS 1980). Wheatstone of stereoscop~,
In photogrammetry the word "Analytical It has been used synonymously with "computational", where the solutions are obtained by mathematical methods as against "Analog", where solutions are obtained by analogy or similitude developed through opticalmechanical procedures. The backbone of analytical methods consists of various mathematical and procedural concepts to represent relations between points in the object, their corresponding images and operational procedures to solve specific problems. Analytical photogrammetric procedures may be considered along three operational stages, each invol ving specific instruments (Fig. 6.1), viz., those used for acquisition of image data (mensural), those used for data-processing and analyses (computational) and those used for display or presentation of the results. In view of the above, we would study the historical developments firstly with regard to the concepts and next with regard to the instruments and their potentials for the future. A mathematical model, in expressing the relevant concept, provides insight into the underlying chain of events. There is no mystery about the way in...
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