ASSIGNMENT on GEO-SEQUESTRATION
M.Sc.(tech.) Environmental Science & Technology (CEST) RAJIV GANDHI SOUTH CAMPUS BARKACHHA MIRZAPUR BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY
SUPERVISED BY: VIJAYKRISHNA SIR
SUBMITTED BY: KAUSHIK KUMAR M.Sc.(tech.) 3rd SEM.
1. Introduction 2. Need for Geo-sequestration 3. CO2 Capture Methods 3.1 Post combustion process 3.2 Pre combustion process 3.3 Oxy-Fuel method 4. CO2 transport 5. CO2 storage 5.1 Geological storage 5.2 Ocean Storage 5.3 Mineral storage 6. Storage capacity of Different reservoirs 7.Types of Geo-sequestration process 8. Advantages and Disadvantages 9. Conclusion 10. Reference
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. It is often referred to by its formula CO2. It is present in the Earth's atmosphere at a low concentration (0.03%) and acts as a greenhouse gas. The initial carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the young Earth was produced by volcanic activity; this was essential for a warm and stable climate conducive to life. Now, a days volcanic releases are about 1% only of the amount of CO2, which is released by human activities.
Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased by approximately 110 µL/L or about 40%, most of it released since 1945. Burning fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum is the leading cause of increased man-made CO2; deforestation is the second major cause. Around 24,000 million tons of CO2 are released per year worldwide, equivalent to about 6,500 million tons of carbon. Various techniques have been proposed for removing excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in carbon dioxide sinks. A carbon dioxide sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon "source". This concept of CO2 sinks has become more widely known because the Kyoto Protocol allows the use of carbon dioxide sinks as a form of carbon offset. Carbon sequestration is the term describing processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere. To help mitigate global warming, a variety of means of artificially capturing and storing carbon – as well as of enhancing natural sequestration processes – are being explored. The Global Warming Theory (GWT) predicts that increased amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere tend to enhance the greenhouse effect and thus contribute to global warming. The effect of combustion-produced carbon dioxide on climate is called the Callendar effect.
Geosequestration is the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide from major industrial sources such as: fossil fuel-fired power stations, oil and natural gas processing, cement manufacture, iron and steel manufacture and the petrochemical industries instead of allowing it to disperse in air. Geosequestration represents perhaps the only option for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions while using fossil fuels and retaining our existing energydistribution infrastructure.
General Process Description:
In a typical CO2 Capture package, 1. hot flue gas passes through the scrubber tower, where it is cooled with cooling water 2. before being fed to the absorber tower. The gas enters near the bottom of the absorber tower and flows upwards through the internal packing 3.coming into contact with the solvent, which enters near the top of the tower, as the solvent cascades down through the tower. As the flue gas rises through the tower the carbon dioxide level is progressively reduced as it is absorbed by the solvent meaning the treated gas vented from the absorber is virtually free of CO2. 4.From the bottom of the absorber tower the CO2-rich solvent is pumped through the lean-rich exchanger.
5. to pre-heat the solvent before it enters the regenerator tower. In the regenerator the solvent is heated via the reboiler 6. to reverse the absorption reaction. As the solvent cascades down through the tower, CO2 is gradually desorbed from the solvent 7. By the time...
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