Elton Mayo was born in Adelaide, South Australia on 26 December 1880 and died in Guildford, Surrey on 1 September 1949. He was the second child of a respected colonial family; his father was a civil engineer, and his mother Henrietta Mary neé Donaldson was devoted to her children's education and success. Elton was expected to follow his grandfather into medicine, but failed at university studies and was sent to Britain. Here he turned to writing, wrote on Australian politics for the Pall Mall Gazette and taught at the Working Men's College in London. He then returned to Australia to work in an Adelaide publishing business where his radical management practices were not appreciated. He returned to university and became the most brilliant student of the philosopher Sir William Mitchell, won prizes for scholarship and in 1912 was appointed a foundation lecturer in philosophy and education at the newly established university in Queensland. Here he married Dorothea McConnel, who had been educated in landscape art at the Sorbonne and frequently visited Europe. They had two daughters, Patricia Elton Mayo, who would follow her father's management thinking and had an interesting sociological career, and Ruth, who became a British artist and novelist and took the name Gael Elton Mayo.
Mayo taught philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, economics, education and the new psychology of Freud, Jung and especially Pierre Janet. From the beginning he trained himself in public speaking, and became an outstanding lecturer. He spoke at Worker's Education Association classes and tutorials, and addressed unions and professional bodies. He much impressed Bronislaw Malinowski when they met in 1914, and they became good friends. During the First World War he served on government bodies, advised on the organization of work for the war effort, wrote and lectured on industrial and political psychology and psychoanalysis, and contributed a lively piece (Mayo and Booth 1916) to Lady Galway's Belgium Book. He was made a professor of philosophy in his university's reorganization after the war.
With a young Brisbane doctor, Thomas R.H. Matthewson, who had sought advice on the management of patients suffering war neurosis, Mayo refined his clinical skills in psychotherapy. He began to apply his observations on Matthewson's patients, and the ideas of the new psychology to political and industrial problems and political agitators (Trahair 1981, 1982). He felt he could trace society's ills to psychological causes (Bourke 1982).
Mayo applied unsuccessfully for a directorship of adult education at the University of Melbourne, and went there to lecture on psychoanalysis before taking sabbatical leave to Britain in 1922. He intended to visit the United States on his way to the UK to work with a medical scholar at Oxford. However, from the moment he landed in San Francisco he was sought as a speaker on many social psychological topics, attracted the attention of industrialists and industrial psychologists for his thoughts on psychological causes of industrial unrest, and readily explained America's industrial problems by reference to understandable irrationalities among workers, the poor skills of managers and the inhuman conditions of work that made for an insane society (Mayo 1919, 1922a, 1922b).
When his university refused to extend Mayo's unpaid sabbatical leave, it forced his resignation. Destitute in the United States, he vigorously sought help from those who had led him to believe there was support readily available for his ideas and industrial research plans. Unexpectedly, he was promised an income for six months by the philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, and given a temporary post at the University of Pennsylvania in 1923. There he researched the value of rest pauses on worker productivity in various textile firms. In one study he introduced regular pauses from the back-breaking work in a cotton-spinning mill and saw improvements in worker...
Bibliography: Bourke, H. (1982) ‘Industrial Unrest as Social Pathology: The Australian Writings of Elton Mayo ', Historical Studies 20(79): 217–33.
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Mayo, E. (1919) Democracy and Freedom: Essays in Social Logic, Workers ' Educational Series No. 1, Melbourne: Macmillan.
——— (1922a) ‘Civilisation and Morale; Industrial Unrest and Nervous Breakdown; the Mind of the Agitator; the Will of the People; Revolution ', Industrial Australian Mining Standard 67(January–February): 16, 59–60, 63, 111, 263.
——— (1922b) Psychology and Religion, Melbourne: Macmillan.
——— (1933) The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilisation, New York: Macmillan.
——— (1945) The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilisation, Boston: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.
——— (1947a) The Political Problems of an Industrial Civilisation, Boston: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.
——— (1947b) Some Notes on the Psychology of Pierre Janet, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mayo, E. and Booth, A. (1916) ‘Ring Down the Curtain ', in M.C. Galway (ed.), Lady Galway 's Belgium Book, Adelaide: Hussey and Gillingham, 40–48.
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Trahair, R.C.S. (1981) ‘Early Contributions to the Political Psychology of Elton Mayo ', in J. Walter (ed.), Reading Life Histories: Griffith Papers on Biography, Canberra: Australian University Press, 56–69.
——— (1982) ‘Elton Mayo and the Political Psychology of Harold D. Lasswell ', Political Psychology 3: 170–88.
——— (1984a) The Humanist Temper: The Life and Work of Elton Mayo, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
——— (1984b) ‘The Life and Work of Elton Mayo ', in B.J. Fallon, H.P. Pfister and J. Brebner (eds), Advances in Industrial Organizational Psychology, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1–9.
Whitehead, T.N. (1938) The Industrial Worker: A Statistical Study of Human Relations in a Group of Manual Workers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2 vols.
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