geopolitical importance

Topics: Persian literature, Iran, Persian language Pages: 11 (3160 words) Published: December 3, 2013
Persian literature

Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی‎) spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources have been within historical Persia including present-day Iran, Iraq and Azerbaijan, as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has historically been the national language. For instance, Molana (Rumi), one of Persia's best-loved poets, born in Balkh (in what is now Afghanistan), wrote in Persian, and lived in Konya then the capital of the Seljuks. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Pakistan, Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia. Not all this literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians/Iranians. Particularly Indic and Turkic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. Described as one of the great literatures of mankind,[1] Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE (the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription). The bulk of the surviving Persian literature, however, comes from the times following the Islamic conquest of Persia circa 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power (750 CE), the Persians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Islamic empire and, increasingly, also its writers and poets. The New Persian literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons - the early Iranian dynasties such as Tahirids and Samanids were based in Khorasan.[2] Persians wrote both in Persian and Arabic; Persian predominated in later literary circles. Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Hafiz, Rumi[3] and Omar Khayyam are also known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. Persian literature has been considered by such thinkers as Goethe one of the four main bodies of world literature.[4] Contents

1 Classical Persian literature
1.1 Pre-Islamic Persian literature
1.2 Persian literature of the medieval and pre-modern periods 1.2.1 Poetry
1.2.2 Essays
1.2.3 Biographies, hagiographies, and historical works
1.2.4 Literary criticism
1.2.5 Persian storytelling
2 Dictionaries
3 Persian phrases
4 The influence of Persian literature on World literature
4.1 Sufi literature
4.2 Areas once under Ghaznavid or Mughal rule
4.2.1 Indian subcontinent
4.3 Western literature
4.3.1 German literature
4.3.2 English literature
4.3.3 Swedish literature
4.3.4 Italian literature
5 Contemporary Persian literature
5.1 History
5.2 Persian literature in Afghanistan
5.3 Persian literature in Tajikistan
5.4 Novels
5.5 Satire
5.6 Literary criticism
5.7 Persian short stories
5.7.1 The formative period
5.7.2 Period of growth and development
5.7.3 Period of diversity
5.8 Poetry
5.8.1 Classical Persian poetry in modern times
5.8.2 Modern Persian poetry
6 Persian literature awards
7 Authors and poets
8 Notes and references
9 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 In English
Classical Persian literature

Pre-Islamic Persian literature
See also: Pahlavi literature

Nizami Mausoleum in the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Very few literary works of Achaemenid Persia have survived, due partly to the destruction of the library at Persepolis.[5] Most of what remains consists of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings, particularly Darius I (522–486 BC) and his son Xerxes. Many Zoroastrian writings were destroyed in the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century. The Parsis who fled to India, however, took with them some of the books of the...
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