Geopolitical. Collective Goods Problem

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What theory best solves the collective goods problem? Provide an example to support the argument.

The issue of collective good has to be think in terms of international policies

Collective goods are, in theory, goods or services which represent two characteristics. The first one, called non-rivalry, means that the consumption of the good by an actor does not prevent its consumption by another one. The second characteristic, the exclusion, means that nobody is excluded from the consumption of this good.
The field of the world collective goods covers so many different domains such as: the reduction of the global warming, the basic research, the fight against the distribution of diseases (AIDS or malaria), the stability of financial markets, struggle against poverty, etc. Peace, free trade, and monetary and financial stability are sometimes considered collective goods that must be assured by international organizations or by hegemonic powers. The climate, water, air, biodiversity, international security, and knowledge are world collective goods too.
There are however very few domains where states share the same general interests. International security, financial stabilization, and food safety are polar opposites of the interests of salesmen of weapons, speculators and salesmen of surpluses of foodstuffs. That is why the issue of collective goods can only be resolved by compromises or superior interests defined during international negotiations.

There are two conceptions that collective goods oppose. The first one is economic and justifies the existence of these goods by the failure of markets. The second conception analyzes the mechanisms of private and public appropriation of these goods and approaches the notion of common heritage.

According to the neo-classic theories, the states are responsible to intervene in regards to collective goods only to correct the imperfections of the market. The production of these goods can be realized through:

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