Geography- tourism

Topics: Tourism, World Tourism Organization Pages: 17 (5086 words) Published: January 24, 2014
Tourism
1) Background and Trends
2) Reasons for growth in Tourism
3) Impacts of growth in Tourism
4) Sustainable Tourism
5) Approaches to Sustainable Tourism

1) Background and Trends
Tourists:
Persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Tourist destination area:
A place that tourists travel to
Tourists generating area:
A place where tourists come from (source)
Tourism:
The activities of tourists and the industry that caters to their needs Domestic Tourism:
Travelling within one's own country and still being able to experience something different from what they are used to International tourism:
Travel which involves the movement of tourists from their own country to another country or countries. Importance of Tourism
Accounts for more than US$6 trillion in global spending
Generates 11.7% of global GDP( world's largest global industry) Makes up 6% of world’s exports of goods and services( generates much income from the consumption of goods and services by tourists) Employs close to 200 million jobs in the world ( increases employment opportunities, → improves the economy within the country ) Strong catalyst for broader economic growth for LDCs

Recovers fastest from crises
Creates opportunities for interactions between people of different cultures and nationalities In 2012, international tourism generated US$ 1.3 trillion in export earnings ( other than consumption of goods and services, income is made from taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry too)

Trends of International Tourism  Generally Increasing

(UNTWO) Number of international tourists arrivals increased from less than 20 million in 1950 to more than 80 million in 2005. By 2020, the figure is expected to soar beyond 1.6 billion. Revenue-wise, global tourism receipts ( the amount of money tourists spend on goods and services in the country they travel to ) have increased from US$270 billion in 1990 to US$ 682 billion in 2005. The number of tourists will increase in all regions around the world. Europe and the Americas will still remain as the most popular tourist destination. However, Europe and the Americas will lose their world market share by 1.2% and 13.9% respectively. The rest of the world will experience an increase in world market share with East Asia experiencing the highest increase of 11%. International tourism on a whole will grow at an average annual rate of 4% . Trends of Domestic Tourism → Increase

(CNTO) 1.2 billion domestic travelers in China and about 20.3 international travelers in 2005. 98.3% of travelers in China were domestic travelers. ( market of domestic tourism is much higher in China than international tourism market) Domestic revenue accounts for 70% of total tourism revenue in China ( domestic → US$69.6 billion international → US$ 29.3 billion However, in Australia, due to fewer domestic trips, and lower proportions of income spent on domestic tourism activities and a declining appeal of domestic travel, the trend for domestic tourism has been declining in Australia for the past few years.

Significant Events in Singapore within last decade:
1) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Outbreak in 2003 2) Global Financial Crisis from 2007-2012
3) Global Recession 2008-2012

2) Reasons for Growth/decline in Tourism
Demand Factors:
1) Disposable Income
Refers to the amount of money left for an individual to spend, or to be set aside as savings, after taxes. As economic conditions improve in many countries around the world, there is more money to spend on leisure activities ( disposable income), hence the means to travel as well. ( this is because the income usage and amount of household savings of the people are influenced by the economic conditions of a country ) However, high taxes or high unemployment rates → lower disposable income ( since most of the income would be...
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