Geography Notes

Topics: Tourism, Human Development Index, Millennium Development Goals Pages: 13 (3285 words) Published: June 21, 2013
Trends of Domestic Tourism and International Tourism Generally Increasing * Increase in overall tourist arrivals, Increase in revenue generated Significant Events in Singapore within last decade:

1) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Outbreak in 2003 2) Global Financial Crisis from 2007-2012
3) Global Recession 2008-2012

Reasons for Growth in Tourism
Demand Factors:
1) Increase in Amt of Disposable Income
2) Increase of Leisure Time
3) Changing Lifestyle- wants a different kind of experience from usual lifestyle Supply Factors:
1) Amenities (Natural/Cultural/Social/Man-made/Event Attractions, Facilities) 2) Accessibility
3) Affordability
4) Subsidiary Services (Tourist-Oriented Services e.g. Information Offices, Guides) 5) Quality Service
Additional Factors:
1) Prevalence of Media (marketing, availability of information) 2) Ease of Travel Booking
3) Meetings, Conventions (Meeting, Incentives, Conventions, Events) 4) Reduction of Political Barrier

Impacts of Growth in Tourism
1) Positive Economic Impacts:
a. Increase in Revenue- Tourists spend on local services, collected by govt as tax revenue b. Development of Infrastructure
c. Job Creation (hotels, tour agencies + all related industries) d. Overall Contribution to Local Economy
e. Diversification of Local Economies
f. Increase in Foreign Investments
*Worthy Mention: Multiplier Effect

Area becomes a more popular tourist attraction

Spends taxes to improve the infrastructure and tourism services

Create more jobs indirectly

Attracts other companies to the area
Local companies supply services
New Hotel Creates Job Directly in Hotel Create more jobs when workers spend their wages

2) Negative Economic Impacts:
a. Loss of Income - Leakage due to TNCs, Competition between foreign and local workers b. Enclave Tourism - Limits economic benefits to destination area c. High Infrastructure Cost
d. Unequal Development of Industries- Over-emphasis on tourist industries to its detriment e. Increase in prices- Due to increase in demand for local good and services f. Overdependence on Tourism Industry- Vulnerable to unforeseen events which affect tourism; etc. Singapore SARS Outbreak 2003 (P.S. Seasonal Unemployment)

3) Positive Cultural & Social Impacts:
a. Exchange of Values
b. Preservation of Heritage-Cultural Heritage is a form of tourist attraction

4) Negative Cultural & Social Impacts:
a. Loss of Local Identity and Values- Traditional way of life or cultural practices are altered to meet the ever increasing demands of tourists b. Conflict of Resource Use
c. Economic Inequality- between tourists or foreign workers and locals esp. in LEDCs d. Clash of Values- can lead to dispute and violence
e. Crime Generation- International Crime, Illegal services provided on a larger scale due to demand, building of casinos leading to gambling addiction

5) Positive Environmental Impacts:
a. Conservation of Natural Attractions (serves as a form of tourist attraction)

6) Negative Environmental Impacts:
a. Environmental Degradation (tourists’ litters, air/noise pollution due to aircrafts, cars) *Negative Environmental Impacts surface when the no. of tourists exceed the carrying capacity (ppl able to be accommodated w/o undermining the quality of the environment) of the area.

Sustainable Tourism
Rationale: To maximize positive impacts and minimize the negative impacts tourism brings about on the cultural heritage or natural environment so that the present needs of tourists and the host countries can be met while protecting and enhancing opportunities for future generations. Three Main Principles of Sustainable Tourism by UN World Trade Organization (UNWTO): 1) Make Optimal Use of Environmental Resources via Conservation of Natural Heritage and...
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